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Freezing of water drops on a cold surface

  • M. E. R. Walford (a1), D. M. Hargreaves (a1), S. Stuart-Smith (a1) and M. Lowson (a2)

Abstract

A drop of water falling gently on to a cold copper surface freezes to it, forming a curious minaret-shaped pellet of ice. The shear tractive force necessary then to remove the ice pellet depends on the initial temperature of the metal: it is a maximum at −22°C and falls to zero at −62°C. At impact velocities greater than approximately 0.8 ms−1, depending on the metal temperature, the droplets of water freeze to form irregular pancakes or discs of ice which adhere to the metal weakly if at all.

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References

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Bari, S.A. Hallett, J.. 1974 Nucleation and growth of bubbles at an ice–water interface. J. Glacial., 13(69), 489520

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