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Frazil-Ice Nucleation by Mass-Exchange Processes at the Air-Water Interface

  • T. E. Osterkamp (a1)

Abstract

The physical requirements for proposed frazil-ice nucleation theories are reviewed in the light of recent observations on frazil-ice formation. It is concluded that spontaneous heterogeneous nucleation in a thin supercooled surface layer of water is not a viable mechanism for frazil-ice nucleation. Efforts to observe crystal multiplication by border ice have not been successful. The mass-exchange mechanism proposed by Osterkamp and others (1974) has been generalized to include splashing, wind spray, bubble bursting, evaporation, and material that originates at a distance from the stream (e.g. snow, frost, ice particles, cold organic material, and cold soil particles). It is shown that these mass-exchange processes can account for frazil-ice nucleation under a wide range of physical and meteorological conditions. It is suggested that secondary nucleation may be responsible for large frazil-ice concentrations in streams and rivers.

Résumé

Nucléation de la glace du “frazil” par des processus d'échanges de masses a léinterface air en eau. On a revu les conditions physiques requises par les théories pour la nucleation de la glace du “frazil” à la lumière de récentes observations sur cette formation. On en conclue qu'une nucléation hétérogène spontanée dans un niveau d'eau superficiel mince en surfusion n'est pas un mécanisme viable pour la nucleation de la glace du frazil. Les efforts pour observer la multiplication des cristaux par de la glace de bordure n'ont pas eu de succès. Le mécanisme d'échanges de masses proposé par Osterkamp et a utres (1974) a été généralisé de manière à inclure l'éclaboussement, la pulvérisation, l'échappement des bulles, l'évaporation et les matières dont I'origine se trouve à une certaine distance du courant (par exemple, neige, givre, particules de glace, matière organique froide et particles de terre froides). On montre que ces processus d'échanges de masses peuvent rendre compte de la nucléation du frazil dans une large gamme de conditions physiques et météorologiques. On suggère qu'une nucl'ation secondaire peut être responsable des grandes concentrations de glace de frazil dans les cours d'eau et rivières.

Zusammenfassung

Keimbildung von Sulzeis durch Massenaustauschuorgänge an der Grenzfläche zwischen. Luft und Wasser. Die physikalischen Bedingungen fur vorgeschla gene Theorien zur Keimbildung von Sulzeis werden im Lichte neuer Beobachtungen der Entstehung von Sulzeis überprüft. Es ergibt sich, dass spontane Fremdkeimbildung in einer dünnen, unterkühlten Oberflächenschicht von Wasser kein ausreichender Mechanismus für die Keimbildung von Sulzeis ist. Bemühungen, Kristallvermehrungen durch Randeis zu beobachten, waren erfolglos. Der von Osterkamp u. a. (1974) vorgeschlagene Mechanismus des Massen-austausches wurde verallgemeinert, um Spritzen, Zersprühen durch Wind, Bersten von Blasen, Verdunstung sowie Stoffe ein zubeziehen, die in einiger Entfernung vom Bach entstehen (z.B. Schnee, Reif, Eisteilchen, kalte orga nische Stoffe und kalte Bodenteilchen). Es wird gezeigt, dass diese Massenaustauschvorgänge die Keimbildung van Sulzeis unter mannigfachen physikalischen und meteorologischen Bedingungen erklären lassen. Man kann annehmen, dass sekundäre Keimbildung zu grossen Ansammlungen von Sulzeis in Bächen und Flüssen führt.

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Copyright

References

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Frazil-Ice Nucleation by Mass-Exchange Processes at the Air-Water Interface

  • T. E. Osterkamp (a1)

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