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Frazil Formation in Water of Different Salinities and Supercoolings

  • Gee Tsang (a1) and Thomas O’D. Hanley (a2)

Abstract

The formation of frazil in water of different salinities and initial supercoolings was studied in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted both on genuine and artificial sea-waters. From analysing the experimental results, it was found that the production rate of frazil is highly sensitive to the initial supercooling of the water and will increase over three orders of magnitude as the initial supercooling increases from zero to 2° C. By properly non-dimensionalizing the parameters, it was found that the normalized concentration of frazil in water is principally a function of the normalized time. For the rate of production of frazil, however, it was found that the normalized rate of frazil production, besides being a function of the normalized time, is also affected by the salinity and the initial supercooling of the water. Different frazil crystals formed in water of different salinities and initial supercoolings are thought to be the reason for the different curves of frazil production rate. The normalization of parameters requires the determination of some characteristic parameters which were found to be well-defined functions of initial supercooling and salinity.

Résumé

Le formation de frazil dans des eaux de différentes salinités et surfusion initiales a été étudiée en laboratoire. Des expériences ont été réalisées à la fois avec des eaux de mer naturelles et artificielles De l’analyse des résultats expérimentaux on trouve que la vitesse de production du frazil est très sensible à la surfonte initiale et qu’elle croît de trois ordres de grandeur quand la surfusion initiale passe de zéro à 2°C. En passant à des paramètres sans dimensions convenables, on a trouvé que la concentration normalisée de frazil dans l’eau est principalement une fonction du temps normalisé. Quant au taux de formation de frazil cependant, on a trouvé que la vitesse de formation normalisée, bien qu’elle soit fonction du temps normalisé est aussi affectée par la salinité et le degré de surface initial de l’eau. Les différentes cristaux de frazil formés dans l’eau de différentes salinités et différentes surfusions initiales sont rendus responsables des différentes vitesses de production du frazil. La normalisation des paramètres requiert la détermination de quelques paramètres caractéristiques qui ont été trouvés être des fonctions bien définies de la surfusion et salinité initiales.

Zusammenfassung

Die Bildung von freischwebenden Eiskristallen in Wasser verschiedener Salinität und Ausgangsunterkühlung wurde im Labor untersucht. Die Versuche wurden sowohl mit echtem wie mit künstlichem Meerwasser vorgenommen. Aus der Analyse der Versuchsergebnisse war zu sehen, dass die Produktionsrate von freischwebenden Eiskristallen ausserordentlich empfindlich gegenüber der Ausgangsunterkühlung des Wassers ist und um drei Grössenordnungen wächst, wenn die Ausgangsunterkühlung von 0°C auf 2°C ansteigt. Bei geeigneter Dimensionierung der Parameter ergab sich, dass die normalisierte Konzentration von freischwebenden Eiskristallen in Wasser grundsätzlich eine Funktion der normalisierten Zeit ist. Doch zeigt sich, dass die normalisierte Rate der Kristallproduktion ausserdem durch die Salinität und die Ausgangsunterkühlung des Wassers beeinflusst wird. Verschiedene Kristalle, entstanden in Wasser verschiedener Salinität und Ausgangsunterkühlung, werden als Grund für die Unterschiede in den Kurven der Kristall-Produktionsraten angenommen. Die Normalisierung der Parameter erfordert die Bestimmung einiger charakteristischer Parameter, die sich als wohldefinierte Funktionen der Ausgangsunterkühlung und der Salinität erweisen.

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References

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Tsang, G. 1982. Frazil and anchor ice: a monograph. Ottawa, National Research Council of Canada. Associate Committee on Hydrology. Sub-committee on Hydraulics of Ice Covered Rivers.
Tsang, G. 1983. Formation and properties of frazil formed in seawater at different supercoolings. [POAC 83.] The seventh International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, Helsinki, Finland. 5–9 April 1983. [Proceedings], Vol. 3, p. 22241. (VTT Symposium 37.)

Frazil Formation in Water of Different Salinities and Supercoolings

  • Gee Tsang (a1) and Thomas O’D. Hanley (a2)

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