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A Fracture Criterion for Snow

  • R. L. Brown (a1)

Abstract

A fracture criterion is developed for fine-grained granular snow and is shown to predict accurately the conditions required for fracture under multiaxial states of stress. The criterion is applied to two specific types of deformation histories. The first deformation path involves an initial high strain-rate to produce fracture from an unstressed rest configuration, and the second path involves multiple strain-rate paths. The criterion expresses the critical value of deviatoric free energy in terms of the volumetric free energy and internal energy dissipation, and it was found to predict fracture accurately for tension, compression, and shear.

Résumé

Un critère de rupture pour la neige. On décrit un critère de la rupture pour de la neige à grains fins et on montre qu'il prédit bien les conditions requises pour la rupture dans des champs de contraintes multiaxiaux. Le critére est appliqué à deux types spécifiques de processus de déformation. Le premier type de déformation comprend au début une grande vitesse de deformation pour produire une rupture à partir d'une configuration au repos sans contraintes, le second type comprend des efforts dans des directions multiples. Le critére exprime les valeurs critiques de l'energie libre de déviation en fonction de l'énergie libre par volume et de la dissipation d'énergie interne; on a trouvé que ce critère prevoyait avec précision les ruptures à la tension, à la compression et au cisaillement.

Zusammenfassung

Ein Bruch-Kriterium für Schnee. Für feinkörnigen Schnee wird ein Bruck-Kriterium entwickelt, von dem sich zeigen lässt, dass es genau jene Verhältnisse voraussagt, die zum Bruch unter vielachsigen Spannungszuständen führen. Das Kriterium wird auf zwei spezifische Typen von Deformations-abläufen angewandt. Der erste geht von einer hohen Anfangsverformungsrate aus, um den Bruch aus einer unverspannten Restkonfiguration zu erzielen; der zweite bezieht sich aufvielfache Wege der Spannungsrate. Das Kriterium stellt den kritischen Wert der deviatorischen freien Energie in Abhängigkeit von der volumetrischen freien Energie und dem inneren Energieschwund dar. Es erwies sich als geeignet zur genauen Voraussage der Dehnung, Kompression und Scherung.

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Copyright

References

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Brown, R. L. 1976. A thermodynamic study of materials representable by integral expansions. Intemational Joumal of Engineering Science, Vol.14, No. 11, p. 1033–46.
Brown, R. L., and Lang, T. E. 1973. On the mechanical properties of snow and its relation to the snow avalanche. Proceedings of the eleventh Annual Engineering Geology and Soils Engineering Symposium, p. 19–36.
Brown, R. L., and Lang, T. E. [1975.] On the fracture properties of snow. [Union Geodesique et Geophysique Intemationale. Association Internationale des Sciences Hydrologiques. Commission des Neiges et Glaces.] Symposium. Mecanique de la neige. Actes du coUoque de Grindelwald, avril I974, p. 196-207. (IAHS-AISH Publication No. 114·)
Brown, R. L., and others. 1973. A failure criterion for snow, [by] R. L., Brown and T. E., Lang, W. F. St., Lawrence and C. C., Bradley. Joumal of Geophysical Research, Vol.78, No. 23, p. 4950-58.
Salm, B. 1971. On the rheological behavior of snow under high stresses. Contributions from the Institute rof Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Ser. A, No. 23.
Sommerfeld, R. A. 1974. A Weibull prediction of the tensile strength-volume relationship of snow. Joumal of Geophysical Research, Vol.79, No. 23, p. 3353–56.

A Fracture Criterion for Snow

  • R. L. Brown (a1)

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