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The Crystallization Pressure of Ice—A Simple Experiment

  • D.C. Connell (a1) and J.M.C. Tombs (a1)

Abstract

Polycrystalline ice, growing from the melt, can exert a pressure against an extended obstacle, even though it is free to grow in other directions. Pressures of over 0.2 bar (20kN m-2) have been measured with simple apparatus. This phenomenon may be important in explaining the frost-shattering of rocks.

Résumé

De la glace polycristalline, croissant à partir de glace fondue, peul exercer une pression contre un obstacle étendu, même si elle est libre de croître dans les autres directions. Des pressions de plus de 0.2 bar (20kN m-2) par cm ont été mesurées avec un appareillage simple. Ce phénomène peut être important pour expliquer la gélifraction des roches.

Zusammenfassung

Polykristallines Eis, das aus der Schmelze wächst, kann Druck gegen ein ausgedehntes Hindernis ausüben, auch wenn es ungehindert in andere Richtungen wachsen kann. Drucke von über 0.2 bar (20kN m-2) werden mit einem einfachen Gerät gemessen. Dieses Phänomen kann für die Erklärung der Frost-sprengung von Felsgestcin bedeutungsvoll sein.

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Copyright

References

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Correns, C.W. Steinborn, W. 1939 Experimente zur Messung und Erklärung der sogenannten Kristallisa–tionskrafl. Zeilschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie, und Petrographie, Abt. A. Bd. 101. Ht. 1–2, p. 11733.
Everett, D.H. 1961 The thermodynamics of frost damage to porous solids. Transactions of the Faraday Society, Vol. 57, No. 465, Pt. 9, p. 154151.
Fletcher, N.H. 1962 Surface structure of water and ice. Philosophical Magazine, Eighth Ser., Vol. 7. No. 74. p. 25569.
Fletcher, N.H. 1963 Surface structure of water and ice–a reply and a correction. Philosophical Magazine. Eighth Ser., Vol. 8, –No. 92, p. 142526.
Hobbs, P.V. Ketcham, W.M. 1969 The planar growth of ice bra the pure melt. (In Riehl, N., ed. Physics of ice: proceedings of the international symposium on physics of ice. Munich, Germany, September 9–14, 1968 Edited by Riehl, N.,Bullemer, B.,Engelhardt, H..New York, Plenum Press p. 95112.)
Jellinek, H.H.G. 1967 Liquid–like (transition) layer on ice. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 25, No. 2, p. 192205.
Khaimov-Mal'kov, V.Ya 1959[a] K termodinamike kristallizatsionnogo davleniya [The thormodynamics of crystallization pressure], (In Shubnikov, A.V.,Sheftal’, N.N. ed. Kost kristallev Tom 2. Moscow, Izdatel’stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, Institut Kristallogiafn p.516.) [English translation: Growth of crystals. Vol. 2. New York, Consultants Bureau, 1959 p. 3—13.]
Khaimov-Mal'kov, V.Ya 1959[b] K voprosy eksperimental’nogo opredeleniya velichiny kristallizatsionnogo davleniya [Experimental measurement of crystallization pressure]. (In Shubnikov, A.V.,Sheftal’N, N.,ed. Rost krislallov Tom 2 Moscow, Izdatel’stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, Institut Kristallografii p.1725.) [English translation: Growth of crystals. Vol. 2. New York. Consultants Bureau, 1959 p. 14–19.]
Scheil, E. 1935 Über das Auftreten einer hohen Kristallisationskraft bei der Bildung von Eisen–Zink–Legierungen. Zeitschrift für Metallkunde, 27. Jahrg., Ht. 4. p. 7677.

The Crystallization Pressure of Ice—A Simple Experiment

  • D.C. Connell (a1) and J.M.C. Tombs (a1)

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