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Conjectures, Hypotheses, and Theories of Drumlin Formation (In memory of Stanislaw Baranowski)

  • Ian J. Smalley (a1)

Abstract

Recent investigations have shown that various factors may affect the shear strength of glacial till and that these factors may be involved in the drumlin-forming process. The presence of frozen till in the deforming zone, variation in pore-water pressure in the till, and the occurrence of random patches of dense stony-till texture have been considered. The occurrence of dense stony till may relate to the dilatancy hypothesis and can be considered a likely drumlin-forming factor within the region of critical stress levels. The up-glacier stress level now appears to be the more important, and to provide a sharper division between drumlin-forming and non-drumlin-forming conditions.

Résumé

Des recherches récentes ont montré que différents facteurs peuvent affecter la résistance au cisaillement des argiles glaciaires et que ces facteurs peuvent intervenir dans le processus de formation des drumlins. La présence de moraines gelées dans la zone en déformation, la variation de la préssion de l’eau dans les pores de la moraine, et la présence de filons de moraine caillouteuse dense ont été examinés. La présence de moraine caillouteuse dense peut être en rapport avec l’hypothèse d’une dilatabilité et peul être considérée comme un facteur probable de formation de drumlin dans les régions à niveaux critiques de contrainte de cisaillement. Le niveau de contrainte en haut du glacier semble maintenant jouer le rôle le plus important, et procurer le meilleur moyen de distinguer les conditions propres à la formation des drumlins de celles qui ne le sont pas.

Zusammenfassung

Neuere Untersuthungen haben gezeigt, dass verschiedene Faktoren die Scherfestigkeit glazialen Schuttes beeinflussen und dass diese Faktoren bei der Bildung von Drumlins eine Rolle spielen können. In Betracht gezogen wurden das Vorhandensein gefrorenen Schuttes in der Deformalionszone, Schwankungen des Porenwasserdruckes im Schutt und das Vorkommen zufäallig verteilter Ansammlungen aus dichtem Blockschutt. Das letztere führt zur Dehnungs-hypothese und kann als wahrscheinliche Ursache der Drumlin-Bildung innerhalb des Bereiches kritischer Spannungszonen betrachtet werden. Das Spannungsniveau gletscheraufwärts scheint nunmehr den grösseren Einfluss zu besitzen; es ermöglicht eine schärfere Trennung der Voraussetzungen dafür, ob sich Drumlins bilden oder nicht.

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References

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Baranowski, S. 1969. Some remarks on the origin of drumlins. Geographia Polonica, No. 17, p. 197208.
Baranowski, S. 1977. Regularity of drumlin distribution and the origin of their formation. Studia Geologica Polonica, Vol. 52, p. 5368.
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Crozier, M. J. 1975. On the origin of the Peterborough drumlin field: testing the dilatancy theory. Canadian Geographer, Vol. 19, No. 3, p. 18195.
Menzies, J. 1979[a]. The mechanics of drumlin formation with particular reference to the change in pore-water content of the till. Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 22, No. 87, p. 37384.
Menzies, J. 1979[b]. A review of the literature on the formation and location of drumlins. Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 14, No. 4, p. 31559.
Smalley, I.J. 1966. Drumlin formation: a rheological model. Science, Vol. 151, No. 3716, p. 137980.
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Whittecar, G. R., and Mickelson, D. M. 1979. Composition, internal structures, and an hypothesis of formation for drumlins, Waukesha County, Wisconsin, U.S.A. Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 22, No. 87, p. 35771.

Conjectures, Hypotheses, and Theories of Drumlin Formation (In memory of Stanislaw Baranowski)

  • Ian J. Smalley (a1)

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