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Three-dimensional aspects of nonlinear stratified flow over topography near the hydrostatic limit

  • T. R. AKYLAS (a1) and KEVIN S. DAVIS (a1)

Abstract

Steady, finite-amplitude internal-wave disturbances, induced by nearly hydrostatic stratified flow over locally confined topography that is more elongated in the spanwise than the streamwise direction, are discussed. The nonlinear three-dimensional equations of motion are handled via a matched-asymptotics procedure: in an ‘inner’ region close to the topography, the flow is nonlinear but weakly three-dimensional, while far upstream and downstream the ‘outer’ flow is governed, to leading order, by the fully three-dimensional linear hydrostatic equations, subject to matching conditions from the inner flow. Based on this approach, non-resonant flow of general (stable) stratification over finite-amplitude topography in a channel of finite depth is analysed first. Three-dimensional effects are found to inhibit wave breaking in the nonlinear flow over the topography, and the downstream disturbance comprises multiple small-amplitude oblique wavetrains, forming supercritical wakes, akin to the supercritical free-surface wake induced by linear hydrostatic flow of a homogeneous fluid. Downstream wakes of a similar nature are also present when the flow is uniformly stratified and resonant (i.e. the flow speed is close to the long-wave speed of one of the modes in the channel), but, in this instance, they are induced by nonlinear interactions precipitated by three-dimensional effects in the inner flow and are significantly stronger than their linear counterparts. Finally, owing to this nonlinear-interaction mechanism, vertically unbounded uniformly stratified hydrostatic flow over finite-amplitude topography also features downstream wakes, in contrast to the corresponding linear disturbance that is entirely locally confined.

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Three-dimensional aspects of nonlinear stratified flow over topography near the hydrostatic limit

  • T. R. AKYLAS (a1) and KEVIN S. DAVIS (a1)

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