Skip to main content Accessibility help

The sources of jet noise: experimental evidence

  • CHRISTOPHER K. W. TAM (a1), K. VISWANATHAN (a2), K. K. AHUJA (a3) and J. PANDA (a4)


The primary objective of this investigation is to determine experimentally the sources of jet mixing noise. In the present study, four different approaches are used. It is reasonable to assume that the characteristics of the noise sources are imprinted on their radiation fields. Under this assumption, it becomes possible to analyse the characteristics of the far-field sound and then infer back to the characteristics of the sources. The first approach is to make use of the spectral and directional information measured by a single microphone in the far field. A detailed analysis of a large collection of far-field noise data has been carried out. The purpose is to identify special characteristics that can be linked directly to those of the sources. The second approach is to measure the coherence of the sound field using two microphones. The autocorrelations and cross-correlations of these measurements offer not only valuable information on the spatial structure of the noise field in the radial and polar angle directions, but also on the sources inside the jet. The third approach involves measuring the correlation between turbulence fluctuations inside a jet and the radiated noise in the far field. This is the most direct and unambiguous way of identifying the sources of jet noise. In the fourth approach, a mirror microphone is used to measure the noise source distribution along the lengths of high-speed jets. Features and trends observed in noise source strength distributions are expected to shed light on the source mechanisms. It will be shown that all four types of data indicate clearly the existence of two distinct noise sources in jets. One source of noise is the fine-scale turbulence and the other source is the large turbulence structures of the jet flow. Some of the salient features of the sound field associated with the two noise sources are reported in this paper.



Hide All
Atvars, J., Schubert, L. H. & Ribner, H. S. 1965 Refraction of sound from a point source placed in an air jet. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 37, 168170.
Bogey, C. & Bailly, C. 2005 Investigation of sound sources in subsonic jets using causality methods on LES data. AIAA Paper 2005–2885.
Brown, G. L. & Roshko, A. 1974 On density effects and large structures in turbulent mixing layers. J. Fluid Mech. 64, 775816.
Chu, W. T. & Kaplan, R. E. 1976 Use of a spherical concave reflector for jet noise source distribution diagnostics. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 59, 12681277.
Crow, S. C. & Champagne, F. H. 1971 Orderly structures in jet turbulence. J. Fluid Mech. 48, 547591.
Dahl, M. D. & Papamoschou, D. 2000 Analytical predictions and measurements of the noise radiated from supersonic coaxial jets. AIAA J. 38, 584591.
Doak, P. E. 1960 Acoustic radiation from a turbulent fluid containing foreign bodies. Pro. R. Soc. Lond. A 254, 129145.
Ffowcs-Williams, J. E. 1963 The noise from turbulence convected at high speed. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 255, 469503.
Goldstein, M. E. 2003 A Generalized acoustic analogy. J. Fluid Mech. 488, 315333.
Goldstein, M. E. & Rosenbaum, B. M. 1973 Effect of anisotropic turbulence on aerodynamic noise. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 54, 630645.
Hileman, J., Thurow, B. & Samimy, M. 2003 Exploring noise sources using simultaneous acoustic measurements and real-time flow visualization in jets. AIAA J. 40, 23822392.
Hileman, J., Thurow, B. & Samimy, M. 2004 Development and evaluation of a 3-D microphone array to locate individual acoustic sources in a high-speed jet. J. Sound Vib. 276, 649669.
Hileman, J.Caraballo, E., Thurow, B. & Samimy, M. 2005 Large-scale structure evolution and sound emission in high-speed jets: real-time visualization with simultaneous acoustic measurements. J. Fluid Mech. 544, 277307.
Hunter, C. & Thomas, R. H. 2003 Development of a jet noise prediction method for installed jet configuration AIAA Paper 2003–3169.
Hurdle, P. M., Meecham, W. C. & Hodder, B. K. 1974 Investigation of the aerodynamic noise generating region of a jet engine by means of the simple source fluid dilatation model. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 56, 17081721.
Khavaran, A.Krejsa, E. A. & Kim, C. M. 1994 Computation of supersonic jet mixing noise from an axisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle. J. Aircraft 31, 603609.
Kopiev, V. F., Chernyshev, S. A., Zaitsev, M. Y. & Kuznetsav, V. M. 2006 Experimental validation of instability wave theory for round supersonic jet. AIAA Paper 2006–2595.
Laufer, J., Schlinker, R. H. & Kaplan, R. E. 1976 Experiments on supersonic jet noise. AIAA J. 14, 489497.
Lee, H. K. & Ribner, H. S. 1972 Direct correlation of noise and flow of a jet. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 52, 12801290.
Lighthill, M. J. 1952 On sound generated aerodynamically: I. General theory. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 211, 564581.
Lighthill, M. J. 1954 On sound generated aerodynamically: II. Turbulence as a source of sound. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 222, 132.
Lilley, G. M. 1958 On the Noise from air jets. Aeronaut. Res. Council Rep. Mem. 20, 376.
Maestrello, L. 1976 Two-point correlation of sound pressure in the far-field of a jet. NASA TM X–72835.
Morris, P. J. & Farassat, F. 2002 Acoustic analogy and alternative theories of jet noise. AIAA J. 40, 671680.
Norum, T. D. & Brown, M. C. 1993 Simulated high speed flight effects on supersonic jet noise. AIAA Paper 93–4388.
Panda, J. 2007 Experimental investigation of turbulence density fluctuations and noise generation from heated jets. J. Fluid Mech. 591, 7396. (See also AIAA Paper 2004-3016.)
Panda, J. & Seasholtz, R. G. 2002 Experimental investigation of density fluctuations in high-speed jets and correlation with generated noise. J. Fluid Mech. 450, 97130.
Panda, J., Seasholtz, R. G. & Elam, K. A. 2005 Investigation of noise sources in high-speed jets via correlation measurements. J. Fluid Mech. 537, 349385.
Philips, O. M. 1960 On the generation of sound by supersonic turbulent shear layer. J. Fluid Mech. 9, 128.
Proudman, I. 1952 The generation of noise by isotropic turbulence. Pro. R. Soc. Lond. A 214, 119132.
Ribner, H. S. 1964 The generation of sound by turbulent jets. In Advances in Applied Mechanics, vol. 8, pp. 108182. Academic.
Richarz, W. G. 1980 Direct correlation of noise and flow of a jet using laser Doppler. AIAA J. 18, 759765.
Schaffar, M. 1979 Direct measurements of the correlation between axial in-jet velocity fluctuations and far-field noise near the axis of a cold jet. J. Sound Vib. 64, 7383.
Schlinker, R. H. 1975 Supersonic jet noise experiments. PhD thesis, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Southern California.
Seasholtz, R. G., Panda, J. & Elam, K. A. 2001 Rayleigh scattering diagnostics for dynamic measurement of velocity fluctuations in high speed jets. AIAA Paper 2001–0847.
Seasholtz, R. G., Panda, J. & Elam, K. A. 2002 Rayleigh scattering diagnostics for measurement of velocity and density fluctuation spectra. AIAA Paper 2002–0827.
Seiner, J. M., Ponton, M. K.Jansen, B. J. & Lagen, N. T. 1992 The effects of temperature on supersonic jet noise emission. AIAA Paper 92–2046.
Siddon, T. E. 1973 Noise source diagnostics using causality correlations. AGARD CP 131, 7-1–7-13.
Tam, C. K.W. 1995 Supersonic jet noise. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 27, 1743.
Tam, C. K. W. 1998 Influence of nozzle geometry on the noise of high speed jets. AIAA J. 36, 13961400.
Tam, C. K. W. 2006 Dimensional analysis of jet noise data. AIAA J. 44, 512522.
Tam, C. K. W. & Auriault, L. 1999 Jet mixing noise from fine-scale turbulence. AIAA J. 37, 145153.
Tam, C. K. W. & Burton, D. E. 1984 a Sound generated by instability waves of supersonic flows. Part 1. Two-dimensional mixing layers. J. Fluid Mech. 138, 249272.
Tam, C. K. W. & Burton, D. E. 1984 b Sound generated by instability waves of supersonic flows. Part 2. Axisymmetric jets. J. Fluid Mech. 138, 273295.
Tam, C. K. W. & Chen, K. C. 1979 A statistical model of turbulence in two-dimensional mixing layers. J. Fluid Mech. 92, 303326.
Tam, C. K. W. & Chen, P. 1994 Turbulent mixing noise from supersonic jets. AIAA J. 32, 17741780.
Tam, C. K. W. & Zaman, K. B. M. Q. 2000 Subsonic jet noise from non-axisymmetric and tabbed nozzles. AIAA J. 38, 592599.
Tam, C. K. W., Golebiowski, M. & Seiner, J. M. 1996 Two components of turbulent mixing noise from supersonic jets. AIAA Paper 96–1716.
Tester, B. J. & Morfey, C. L. 1976 Development in jet noise modelling–Theoretical predictions and comparisons with measured data. J. Sound Vib. 46, 79103.
Thurow, B.Samimy, M. & Lempert, W. 2003 Compressibility effects on turbulence structures of axisymmetric mixing layers. Phys. Fluids 15, 17551765.
Van Dyke, M. 1982 An album of Fluid Motion, Parabolic Press, Stanford, California.
Viswanathan, K. 2002 Analysis of the two similarity components of turbulent mixing noise. AIAA J. 40, 17351744.
Viswanathan, K. 2003 Jet aeroacoustic testing: issues and implications. AIAA J. 41, 16741689.
Viswanathan, K. 2004 Aeroacoustics of hot jets. J. Fluid Mech.. 516, 3982.
Viswanathan, K. 2006 Scaling laws and a method for identifying components of jet noise. AIAA J. 44, 22742285.
Viswanathan, K. 2007 Investigation of the sources of jet noise. AIAA Paper 2007–3601.
Yamamoto, K., Brausch, J. F., Janardan, B. A., Hoerst, D. J., Price, A. O. & Knott, P. R. 1984 Experimental investigation of shock-cell noise reduction for single-stream nozzles in simulated flight, Test Nozzle and Acoustic Data, Comprehensive Data Report, vol. 1, NASA CR–168234.
MathJax is a JavaScript display engine for mathematics. For more information see


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed