Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Sound generation by turbulent premixed flames

  • Ali Haghiri (a1), Mohsen Talei (a1), Michael J. Brear (a1) and Evatt R. Hawkes (a2) (a3)

Abstract

This paper presents a numerical study of the sound generated by turbulent, premixed flames. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of two round jet flames with equivalence ratios of 0.7 and 1.0 are first carried out. Single-step chemistry is employed to reduce the computational cost, and care is taken to resolve both the near and far fields and to avoid noise reflections at the outflow boundaries. Several significant features of these two flames are noted. These include the monopolar nature of the sound from both flames, the stoichiometric flame being significantly louder than the lean flame, the observed frequency of peak acoustic spectral amplitude being consistent with prior experimental studies and the importance of so-called ‘flame annihilation’ events as acoustic sources. A simple model that relates these observed annihilation events to the far-field sound is then proposed, demonstrating a surprisingly high degree of correlation with the far-field sound from the DNS. This model is consistent with earlier works that view a premixed turbulent flame as a distribution of acoustic sources, and provides a physical explanation for the well-known monopolar content of the sound radiated by premixed turbulent flames.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Email address for correspondence: a.haghiri@student.unimelb.edu.au

References

Hide All
Balachandran, R., Ayoola, B. O., Kaminski, C. F., Dowling, A. P. & Mastorakos, E. 2005 Experimental investigation of the nonlinear response of turbulent premixed flames to imposed inlet velocity oscillations. Combust. Flame 143 (1), 3755.
Birbaud, A. L., Ducruix, S., Durox, D. & Candel, S. 2006 Dynamics of free jets modulated by plane acoustic waves: part 2. Numerical simulations. In 12th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference (27th AIAA Aeroacoustics Conference), Cambridge, MA, AIAA Paper 2006-2670.
Bogey, C., Bailly, C. & Juvé, D. 2000 Numerical simulation of sound generated by vortex pairing in a mixing layer. AIAA J. 38 (12), 22102218.
Bragg, S. L. 1963 Combustion noise. J. Inst. Fuel 36 (1), 1216.
Brear, M. J., Nicoud, F., Talei, M., Giauque, A. & Hawkes, E. R. 2012 Disturbance energy transport and sound production in gaseous combustion. J. Fluid Mech. 707, 5373.
Bui, T. P., Ihme, M., Schröder, W. & Pitsch, H. 2009 Analysis of different sound source formulations to simulate combustion generated noise using a hybrid LES/APE-RF method. Intl J. Aeroacoust. 8 (1), 95123.
Bui, T. P., Meinke, M., Schröder, W., Flemming, F., Sadiki, A. & Janicka, J.2005 A hybrid method for combustion noise based on LES and APE. AIAA Paper 2005-3014.
Bui, T. P., Schröder, W. & Meinke, M. 2008 Numerical analysis of the acoustic field of reacting flows via acoustic perturbation equations. Comput. Fluids 37 (9), 11571169.
Candel, S., Durox, D. & Schuller, T. 2004 Flame interactions as a source of noise and combustion instabilities. In Collection of Technical Papers-10th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, AIAA Paper 2004-2928, pp. 1444–1454.
Chakraborty, N. & Cant, R. S. 2009 Direct numerical simulation analysis of the flame surface density transport equation in the context of large eddy simulation. Proc. Combust. Inst. 32 (1), 14451453.
Chakraborty, N., Konstantinou, I. & Lipatnikov, A. 2016 Effects of Lewis number on vorticity and enstrophy transport in turbulent premixed flames. Phys. Fluids 28 (1), 015109.
Chen, C. L. & Sohrab, S. H. 1995 Upstream interactions between planar symmetric laminar methane premixed flames. Combust. Flame 101 (3), 360370.
Chen, J. H., Choudhary, A., De Supinski, B., DeVries, M, Hawkes, E. R., Klasky, S., Liao, W. K., Ma, K. L., Mellor-Crummey, J., Podhorszki, N. et al. 2009 Terascale direct numerical simulations of turbulent combustion using S3D. Comput. Sci. Disc. 2 (1), 015001.
Clavin, P. & Joulin, G. 1983 Premixed flames in large scale and high intensity turbulent flow. J. Phys. Lett. 44 (1), 112.
Colonius, T., Lele, S. K. & Moin, P. 1997 Sound generation in a mixing layer. J. Fluid Mech. 330, 375409.
Docquier, N. & Candel, S. 2002 Combustion control and sensors: a review. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 28 (2), 107150.
Dowling, A. P. 1992 Thermoacoustic sources and instabilities. In Modern Methods in Analytical Acoustics, chap. 13, pp. 378403. Springer.
Dowling, A. P. & Ffowcs Williams, J. E. 1983 Sound and Sources of Sound. Horwood.
Dowling, A. P. & Mahmoudi, Y. 2015 Combustion noise. Proc. Combust. Inst. 35, 65100.
Dunstan, T. D., Swaminathan, N., Bray, K. N. C. & Kingsbury, N. G. 2013 Flame interactions in turbulent premixed twin V-flames. Combust. Sci. Technol. 185 (1), 134159.
Echekki, T. & Chen, J. H. 1999 Analysis of the contribution of curvature to premixed flame propagation. Combust. Flame 118 (1), 308311.
Echekki, T., Chen, J. H. & Gran, I. 1996 The mechanism of mutual annihilation of stoichiometric premixed methane–air flames. Symp. Intl Combust. 26 (1), 855863.
Flemming, F., Sadiki, A. & Janicka, J. 2007 Investigation of combustion noise using a LES/CAA hybrid approach. Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 31893196.
Fogla, N., Creta, F. & Matalon, M. 2017 The turbulent flame speed for low-to-moderate turbulence intensities: hydrodynamic theory vs. experiments. Combust. Flame 175, 155169.
Griffiths, R. A. C., Chen, J. H., Kolla, H., Cant, R. S. & Kollmann, W. 2015 Three-dimensional topology of turbulent premixed flame interaction. Proc. Combust. Inst. 35 (2), 13411348.
Haworth, D. C. & Poinsot, T. J. 1992 Numerical simulations of lewis number effects in turbulent premixed flames. J. Fluid Mech. 244, 405436.
Hurle, I. R., Price, R. B., Sugden, T. M. & Thomas, A. 1968 Sound emission from open turbulent premixed flames. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 303 (1475), 409427.
Ihme, M. 2017 Combustion and engine-core noise. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 49, 277310.
Ihme, M. & Pitsch, H. 2012 On the generation of direct combustion noise in turbulent non-premixed flames. Intl J. Aeroacoust. 11 (1), 2578.
Ihme, M., Pitsch, H. & Bodony, D. 2009 Radiation of noise in turbulent non-premixed flames. Proc. Combust. Inst. 32 (1), 15451553.
Jiménez, C., Haghiri, A., Talei, M., Brear, M. J. & Hawkes, E. R. 2015 Sound generation by premixed flame annihilation with full and simple chemistry. Proc. Combust. Inst. 35, 33173325.
Karami, S., Hawkes, E. R., Talei, M. & Chen, J. H. 2015 Mechanisms of flame stabilisation at low lifted height in a turbulent lifted slot-jet flame. J. Fluid Mech. 777, 633689.
Karami, S., Hawkes, E. R., Talei, M. & Chen, J. H. 2016 Edge flame structure in a turbulent lifted flame: a direct numerical simulation study. Combust. Flame 169, 110128.
Karami, S., Talei, M., Hawkes, E. R. & Chen, J. H. 2017 Local extinction and reignition mechanism in a turbulent lifted flame: a direct numerical simulation study. Proc. Combust. Inst. 36 (2), 16851692.
Kee, R. J., Grcar, J. F., Smooke, M. D., Miller, J. A. & Meeks, E.1985 Premix: a fortran program for modeling steady laminar one-dimensional premixed flames. Sandia National Laboratories Report.
Kennedy, C. A., Carpenter, M. H. & Lewis, R. M. 2000 Low-storage, explicit Runge–Kutta schemes for the compressible Navier–Stokes equations. Appl. Numer. Maths 35 (3), 177219.
Kidin, N., Librovich, V., MacQuisten, M., Roberts, J. & Vuillermoz, M. 1988 Possible acoustic source in turbulent combustion. Dyn. Reactive Syst. Part 1: Flames 1, 336348.
Kotake, S. & Takamoto, K. 1990 Combustion noise: effects of the velocity turbulence of unburned mixture. J. Sound Vib. 139 (1), 920.
Law, C. K. & Sung, C. J. 2000 Structure, aerodynamics, and geometry of premixed flamelets. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 26 (4), 459505.
Lieuwen, T. C. 2012 Unsteady Combustor Physics. Cambridge University Press.
Lighthill, M. J. 1952 On sound generated aerodynamically: I. General theory. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 211, 564587.
Lighthill, M. J. 1954 On sound generated aerodynamically: II. Turbulence as a source of sound. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 222 (1148), 132.
Liu, Y. 2015 Two-time correlation of heat release rate and spectrum of combustion noise from turbulent premixed flames. J. Sound Vib. 353, 119134.
Livebardon, T., Moreau, S., Poinsot, T. & Bouty, E.2015 Numerical investigation of combustion noise generation in a full annular combustion chamber. AIAA Paper 2015-2971.
Lockard, D. P. 2000 An efficient, two-dimensional implementation of the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation. J. Sound Vib. 229 (4), 897911.
Miyauchi, T., Tanahashi, M. & Li, Y. 2001 Sound generation in chemically reacting mixing layers. In Smart Control of Turbulent Combustion, pp. 2838. Springer.
Passot, T. & Pouquet, A. 1987 Numerical simulation of compressible homogeneous flows in the turbulent regime. J. Fluid Mech. 181, 441466.
Poinsot, T., Echekki, T. & Mungal, M. G. 1992 A study of the laminar flame tip and implications for premixed turbulent combustion. Combust. Sci. Technol. 81 (1–3), 4573.
Poinsot, T. & Veynante, D. 2005 Theoretical and Numerical Combustion. RT Edwards, Inc.
Rajaram, R., Gray, J. & Lieuwen, T.2006 Premixed combustion noise scaling: total power and spectra. AIAA Paper 2006–2612.
Rajaram, R. & Lieuwen, T. 2009 Acoustic radiation from turbulent premixed flames. J. Fluid Mech. 637, 357385.
Schuller, T., Durox, D. & Candel, S. 2003 Self-induced combustion oscillations of laminar premixed flames stabilized on annular burners. Combust. Flame 135 (4), 525537.
Silva, C. F., Leyko, M., Nicoud, F. & Moreau, S. 2013 Assessment of combustion noise in a premixed swirled combustor via large-eddy simulation. Comput. Fluids 78, 19.
Smith, G. P., Golden, D. M., Frenklach, M., Moriarty, N. W., Eiteneer, B., Goldenberg, M., Bowman, C. T., Hanson, R. K., Song, S., Gardiner, W. C. L. Jr et al. 1999 GRI 3.0 Mechanism. Gas Research Institute (http://www.me.berkeley.edu/gri_mech).
Smith, T. J. B. & Kilham, J. K. 1963 Noise generation by open turbulent flames. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 35, 715724.
Strahle, W. C. 1978 Combustion noise. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 4 (3), 157176.
Strahle, W. C. & Shivashankara, B. N. 1975 A rational correlation of combustion noise results from open turbulent premixed flames. Symp. Intl Combust. 15 (1), 13791385.
Sun, C. J. & Law, C. K. 1998 On the consumption of fuel pockets via inwardly propagating flames. Symp. Intl Combust. 27 (1), 963970.
Swaminathan, N., Balachandran, R., Xu, G. & Dowling, A. P. 2011a On the correlation of heat release rate in turbulent premixed flames. Proc. Combust. Inst. 33 (1), 15331541.
Swaminathan, N., Xu, G., Dowling, A. P. & Balachandran, R. 2011b Heat release rate correlation and combustion noise in premixed flames. J. Fluid Mech. 681, 80115.
Talei, M., Brear, M. J. & Hawkes, E. R. 2011 Sound generation by laminar premixed flame annihilation. J. Fluid Mech. 679, 194218.
Talei, M., Brear, M. J. & Hawkes, E. R. 2012a A parametric study of sound generation by premixed laminar flame annihilation. Combust. Flame 159 (2), 757769.
Talei, M., Brear, M. J. & Hawkes, E. R. 2014 A comparative study of sound generation by laminar, combusting and non-combusting jet flows. Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 28 (4), 385408.
Talei, M., Hawkes, E. R. & Brear, M. J. 2012b A direct numerical simulation study of frequency and Lewis number effects on sound generation by two-dimensional forced laminar premixed flames. Proc. Combust. Inst. 34, 10931100.
Tanahashi, M., Tsukinari, S., Saitoh, T., Miyauchi, T., Choi, G.-M., Ikame, M., Kishi, T., Harumi, K. & Hiraoka, K. 2002 On the sound generation and its controls in turbulent combustion field. In Proceedings of 3rd Symposium on Smart Control of Turbulence, pp. 149160. University of Tokyo, Japan.
Wu, X. & Moin, P. 2008 A direct numerical simulation study on the mean velocity characteristics in turbulent pipe flow. J. Fluid Mech. 608, 81112.
Yoo, C. S. & Im, H. G. 2007 Characteristic boundary conditions for simulations of compressible reacting flows with multi-dimensional, viscous and reaction effects. Combust. Theor. Model. 11 (2), 259286.
Zhang, F., Habisreuther, P., Bockhorn, H., Nawroth, H. & Paschereit, C. 2013 On prediction of combustion generated noise with the turbulent heat release rate. Acta Acust. 99 (6), 940951.
Zhao, W. & Frankel, S. H. 2001 Numerical simulations of sound radiated from an axisymmetric premixed reacting jet. Phys. Fluids 13 (9), 26712681.
MathJax
MathJax is a JavaScript display engine for mathematics. For more information see http://www.mathjax.org.

JFM classification

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Type Description Title
VIDEO
Movies

Haghiri et al. supplementary movie 1
Animation of the dimensionless dilatation field on the central plane through the jet for Φ=1.0.

 Video (1.6 MB)
1.6 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Haghiri et al. supplementary movie 2
Animation of the dimensionless dilatation field on the central plane through the jet for Φ=0.7.

 Video (1.2 MB)
1.2 MB

Sound generation by turbulent premixed flames

  • Ali Haghiri (a1), Mohsen Talei (a1), Michael J. Brear (a1) and Evatt R. Hawkes (a2) (a3)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.