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Report on the first European Mechanics Colloquium, on the Coanda effect

  • R. Wille (a1) and H. Fernholz (a1)


The first in a new series of European research conferences in mechanics was held in Berlin on 5 and 6 April 1965. The subject was the Coanda effect, or boundary layers and jets on highly curved walls. Participation was restricted to about 40 people, invited on the basis of their active interest in the subject. These Colloquia are intended to have an informal, workshop-like, character, and formal papers are not normally available, nor will any full proceedings be published. The first author was the chairman of the Colloquium. The following account of the scientific developments of the Colloquium has been prepared to make them widely available. The references quoted give further details of the work discussed at the Colloquium and of related previous work.



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Ackeret, J. 1926 Grenzschichtabsaugung. Z. V. D. I. 70, 1153.
Bailey, A. B. 1961 Use of the Coanda effect for the deflection of jet sheets over smoothly curved surfaces. UTIA TN no. 49.
Benner, S. D. 1965 The Coanda-effect at deflection surfaces widely separate from the jet nozzle. UTIAS TN no. 78.
Bhattacharya, A. & Wille, R. 1959 Der Einfluss von Nadeln auf die Kühlung von kurzen Kreiszylinden bei Freistrahlanblasung. Glastech. Ber. 32, 397.
Black, J. 1957 A note on the mixing process in the flow induced by a high velocity air jet. J. Roy. Aero. Soc. 61, 631.
Bourque, C. 1959 Déflection d'un jet turbulent incompressible par un volet incline; effect-Coanda. M.Sc. Thesis, Laval University.
Bourque, C. & Newman, G. B. 1960 Reattachment of a two dimensional incompressible jet to an adjacent flat plate. Aero. Quart. 11, 201.
Bouasse, H. 1931 Tourbillons. Delagrave.
Boyer, L. I. 1963 Preliminary investigations and evaluations of the Coanda effect. AAF Wright Field TR 2207.
Bradshaw, P. & Gee, M. T. 1960 Turbulent wall jets with and without an external stream. ARC R & M 3252.
Bradbury, L. J. S. The deflection of plane jets by adjacent circular cylinders. To be published as an RAE paper.
Busemann, A. 1939 Schuberhöhung durch Luftbeimischung. Lilienthal Ges. Luftfahrt. Bericht, 118.
Caille, C. 1956 Die gleichmässige Verteilung der quer aus einem Lüftungskanal austretenden Luft. Tech. Rsch., Sulzer AG, 38, 28.
Carriere, P. & Sirieix, M. 1960 Etude des facteurs influencant le recollement d'une couche limite en supersonique. proc. 10th Int. Congr. Appl. Mechs, Stresa.
Catherall, D. & Mangler, K. W. 1963 An indirect method for the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for laminar incompressible flow at large Reynolds numbers. RAE Rep. Aero. 2683.
Coanda, H. 1932 Procédé de propulsion dans un fluide. Brevet Invent. Gr. Cl. 2, no. 762688 République Française.
Coanda, H. 1960 Analysis of thrust due to the Coanda phenomenon. Air Force Office of Sci. Res. ARL 27 AD 255, 741.
Coles, D. 1956 The law of the wake in the turbulent boundary layer. J. Fluid Mech. 1, 191.
Cooke, J. C. 1965 Similar second-order laminar boundary layers. To be published as RAE Report.
Cooke, J.C. Effects of wall curvature on laminar boundary layers.
Earnshaw, P. B., Griffiths, R. T. & Jones, R. H. 1956 An investigation of the induction effects of a high velocity jet and its application to flap blowing. Univ. of Bristol, Aeronautical Laboratory, Rep. no. 27.
Elsby, C. N. 1963 Jet switching phenomena in a choked flow Coanda effect nozzle. Air Force Inst. of Techn. Wright Patterson AFB, AFJT GA/ME/63, 2.
Eskinazi, S. & Kruka, V. 1962 Turbulence measurements in a two-dimensional wall-jet with longitudinal free stream. Syracuse Univ. Res. Inst. Rep. ME 937-6205 P.
Eskinzai, S. & Kruka, V. 1964 The wall-jet in a moving stream. J. Fluid Mech. 20, 555.
Etkin, B., Korbacher, G. K., Nishimura, Y., Ribner, H. S. & Wilson, A. E. 1964 Application of an ejector nozzle and Coanda surface to ventilation of a highway tunnel. UTIA TN 82.
Eyles, A. J. & Foster, D. N. 1957 An investigation of the curved flow induced by a high pressure jet. Univ. of Bristol, Aeronautical Laboratory, Rep. 30.
Fekete, G. J. 1963 Coanda flow of a two-dimensional wall jet on the outside of a circular cylinder. McGill Univ. Montreal, Rep. no. 63-11.
Fernholz, H. 1964 Umlenkung von Freistrahlen an gekrümmten Wänden. WGLR-Jahrbuch, p. 149.
Fernholz, H. 1965a Zur Umlenkung von Freistrahlen an gekrümmten Wänden. Habilitationsschrift Techn. Universität, Berlin.
Fernholz, H. 1965b Experimentelle Untersuchung zur Umlenkung von Gasstrahlen mit Temperaturen bis zu 1500K an einer konvex gekrümmten Wand. Interner Bericht Grünzwieig u. Hartmann AG Ludwigshafen.
Fernholz, H. Die Strömung entlang einer konvexen Kreisbogenkontur bei starker Krümmung und kleinem Seitenverhältnis.
Foa, J. V. & Markstein, G. H. 1952 Theoretical analysis of flow phenomena in a pulse jet. Cornell Aero. Lab. Semi-Annual Progress Rep., p. 195.
Gates, M. F. 1958 Static lift characteristics of jet slots—a clarifying study of the external ejector. Hiller Aircraft Co., Rep. ARD -213.
Gates, M. F. & Burdieck, L. A. 1963 Investigation of ventilated clinging flow phenomenon. Hiller Aircraft Co., TRECOM TR no. 63-38.
Gersten, K. Flow along highly curved surfaces.
Von Glahn, U. H. 1958 Use of the Coanda effect for jet deflection and vertical lift with multiple-flat-plate and curved-plate deflection surfaces. NACA TN no. 4377.
Von Glahn, U. H. 1958 Use of the Coanda effect for obtaining jet deflection and lift with a single flat-plate deflection surface. NACA TN no. 4272.
Von Glahn, U. H. & Porolny, J. H. 1957 Considerations of some jet deflection principles for directional control and for lift. Reprint 219, SAE.
Glattli, H. H. & Bahr, J. 1965 Über neuere Untersuchungen an Wandstrahlelementen und ihre Anwendung in logischen Schaltungen. Rep. of IBM Forschungslaboratorium ZÜrich.
Glauert, H. 1934 The influence of a uniform jet on the lift of an aerfoil. ARC R & M. 1602.
Glauert, M. B. 1956 The wall jet. J. Fluid. Mech. 1, 625.
Görtler, H. 1942 Berechnung von Aufgaben der freien Turbulenz auf Grund eines neuen Náherungsansatzes. Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 22, 244.
Guitton, D. E. 1964 Two-dimensional turbulent wall jets over curved surfaces. McGill Univ. Montreal. Rep. 64-7.
*Guitton, D. Turbulence measurements in a curved flow.
Guitton, D. 1965 The turbulent wall jet on a concave surface. To be published as a report of the von Karman Inst. for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode-Saint-Genèse.
*Harris, G. Two-dimensional incompressible turbulent wall jets on plane and curved surfaces. To be published as report of the von Karman Inst. for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode-Saint-Genèse.
Head, M. R. 1960 Entrainment in the turbulent boundary layer. ARC R & M 3152.
Hope-Gill, C. D. 1964 An experimental investigation into the shape of thrust-augmenting surfaces in conjunction with Coanda deflected jet sheets. UTIA TN no. 70.
Kadosch, M. 1958 Dèviation des jets par adherence à une paroi convexe. J. Phys. Radium, Paris, 19, 1.
Kadosch, M. 1959 Mécanisme de la déviation des jets propulsives. Publications Scientifiques et Technique du Ministère de l'Air B.S.T.. 124.
Kadosch, M. 1964 Attachment of a jet to curved wall. Proc. 2nd Symposium on Fluid Amplification, 4, 234.
*Kadosch, M. 1965 Attachment d'un jet á une paroi circulaire. Soc. Bertin Note Techn. 35, 21.
Von Karman, Th. 1929 Beitrag zur Theorie des Auftriebs. Contribution in Gilles, Hopf, Karman, Vorträage aus dem Gebiet der Aerodynamik und verwandter Gebiete. Berlin: Springer.
*Klein, E. 1965 UmstrooUmung einer konvexen Kontur durch einen dünnen Flüssigkeitsfilm mit freier Oberfläche. (Die Vergrösserung des Zerstäubungstrahlwinkels einer Dralldüse als Anwendungsbeispiel.) To be published as Bericht der DVLR.
Knystautos, R. 1964 The turbulent jet from a series of holes in line. Aero. Quart. 15, 1.
Koester, H. & Löhr, R. 1964 Untersuchung der Umlenkung eines ebenen Strahles durch einen Kreiszylinder. Inst. für Aerodynamik der DFL Braunschweig. Ber. 64/30.
Korbacher, G. K. 1962 The Coanda-effect at deflection surfaces detached from the jet nozzle. Canad. Aer. & Space J. 8, 1.
Korst, H. H. 1956 A theory for base pressures in transonic and supersonic flow. J. Appl. Mech. 23, 593.
Küchemann, D. & Weber, J. 1953 Aerodynamics of Propulsion. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Labrujere, T. E. & Zandbergen, P. J. 1964 Potential theoretical description of the flow in a jet deflected by a circular cylinder-Coanda-effect. NLR TN no. G. 31.
Lafay, M. A. 1929 Contribution à l'étude de l'effet Chilowsky. MeAmorial de l'Artillerie VIII, 3e faisceau, 385.
Lehmann, B. Beeinflussung der Strömung längs einer konvex gekrümmten Wand durch eine Steuerschneide.
Levin, S. G. & Manion, F. M. 1962 Jet attachment distance as a function of adjacent wall offset and angle. Rep. of Harry Diamond Labs.
Lighthill, M. J. 1945 Note on the deflection of jets by insertion of curved surfaces, and on the design of bends in wind tunnels. ARC Rep. & Memo. 2105.
Lockwood, R. M. & Sargent, E. R. 1957 Static lift augmentation from external jet mixing. Hiller Aircraft Co. Advanced Research Div. Rep. ARD-139.
McArdle, J. G. 1958 Internal characteristics and performance of several jet deflectors at primary-nozzle pressure up to 3.0. NACA TN no. 4264.
Margolis, D. 1963 An investigation of a curved mixing layer. Penns. State Univ. College of Eng. Project, no. 3227-E.
Marwood, R. M. 1949 An experimental investigation of the Coanda effect. Purdue Univ. Indianapolis Thesis Project no. 14-151 ATI.
Metral, A. 1938a Sur un phénomène de déviation des veines fluides et ses applications (Effet Coanda). Cabinet Technique du Ministère de l'Air.
Metral, A. 1938b Sur un phénomène de déviation des veines fluides et ses applications (Effect Coanda). Proc. 5th Int. Congr. of Appl. Mech. p. 456.
Metral, A. 1948 Method of increasing fluid stream by diverting it from its axis of flow. Coanda-effect. HQ Air Material Command, Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio. TN F-Ts- 823-Re W ADC-AMC.
Metral, A. R. & Zerner, F. 1948 L'effet Coanda. Publications Scientifique et Techniques du Ministère del' Air, no. 218.
Murphy, J. S. 1962 Extension of the Falkner-Skan similar solution of the laminar boundary layer equations to flows with surface curvature. Douglas Airc. Corp. Rep. ES 40487.
Myers, G. E., Schauer, J. J. & Eustis, R. H. 1961 The plane turbulent wall jet. Part 1, Jet development and friction factor. Stanford Univ. Dept. Mech. Engng TR no. 1.
Nakaguchi, H. 1961 Deflection of plane jets by adjacent boundaries-Coanda-effect. Article in Boundary Layer and Flow Control. Its Principles and Application. London: Pergamon Press.
*Nicoll, W. B. Wall jets with external stream.
Ojha, S. K. 1965 A study of laminar boundary layers and separation bubbles near the leading edges of two-dimensional airfoils. Ph.D. Thesis, Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore.
*Pavlin, C. 1965 Communication au colloque Euromech I. Propriétés dynamiques des bascules fluides. Application à un réspirateur artificiel. Société Bertin et Cie Note Technique, 35, 22.
Reid, J. 1962 An experiment on aerodynamic nozzles at M = 2. A.R.C. R & M. 3382.
Reitzer, H. 1964 Contribution à l'étude des jets. Formation et deviation. Publ. Scie. Techn. du Ministère de l'Air, 403.
Reynolds, O. 1870 Suspension of a ball by a jet of fluid. Proc. Manch. Lit. Phil. Soc. 9, 114, 133.
*Riedel, H. Strahlströmung über einen Flügel.
Roderick, W. E. B. 1961 Use of the Coanda-effect for the deflection of jet sheets over smoothly curved surfaces. Part II UTIA TN no. 51.
Ross, D. & Robertson, J. M. 1951 A superposition analysis of the turbulent boundary layer in an adverse pressure gradient. J. Appl. Mech. 18, 95.
Rotta, J. 1950 Über die Theorie der turbulenten Grenzschichten. Mitt. MPI Ström. Forschung, no. 1. Also available as NACA TM 1344.
Rotta, J. 1962 Turbulent boundary layers in incompressible flow. Prog. in Aero. Sci., 2, 1.
Ruden, P. 1939, 1940 Windschatteneinfluss auf Rechteckflügel. Jahrb. d. deutschen Luftfahrtforschung I, 98 and 114; also Jahrb. d. deutschen Luftfahrtforschung I, 204.
Sawyer, R. A. 1960 The flow due to a two-dimensional jet issuing parallel to a flat plate. J. Fluid Mech. 9, 543.
Sawyer, R. A. 1962 Two-dimensional turbulent jets with adjacent boundaries. Cambridge Univ. Ph.D. Thesis.
Sawyer, R. A. 1963 Two-dimensional reattaching jet flows including the effects of curvature on entrainment. J. Fluid Mech. 17, 481.
Schlichting, H. 1964 Boundary Layer Theory. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Schuh, H. & Person, B. 1964 Heat transfer on circular cylinders exposed to free jet flow. Int. J. Heat & Mass Transfer, 7, 1257.
Sigalla, A. 1958 Experimental data on turbulent wall jets. Aircr. Engng, 30, 131.
Spalding, D. B. 1964 A unified theory of friction, heat transfer and mass transfer in the turbulent boundary layer and wall jet. ARC Rep. no. 25925.
Spalding, D. B. & Chi, S. W. 1964 The drag of a compressible turbulent boundary layer on a smooth flat plate with and without heat transfer. J. Fluid Mech. 18, 117.
Spence, D. A. 1958 The lift of a thin aerofoil with a jet-augmented flap. Aero. Quart. 4, 287.
Sproule, R. S., Adderley, L. W. & Robinson, S. T. 1944 The Coanda effect. CIOS. SHAEFF Item 5.
Squire, H. B. 1945 On the Coanda effect. Appendix to Squire, Harper and Bekassy, wind-tunnel tests of oblique jet units. RAE Rep. Aero. 2007.
Squire, H. B. 1950 Jet flow and its effect on aircraft. Aircr. Engng, 22, 22.
Sterne, L. H. G. 1961 Analysis of thrust due to the Coanda-phenomenon. Rep. of TCEA. Rhode-Saint-Genèse.
*Stollery, J. L. Laminar boundary layers over concave surfaces at hypersonic speeds.
Stratford, B. S., Jawor, Z. M. & Golesworthy, G. T. 1963 The mixing with ambient air of a cold airstream in a centrifugal field. ARC Current Paper, no. 687.
Szablewski, W. 1965 Turbulente Vermischung heisser Gasstrahlen mit umgebender Luft. Ing. Arch. 34, 69.
Teodorescu-Tintea, C. 1959 Turbine radiale aux palettes dépressives. Brevet, no. 42, 186. Bucarest.
Teodorescu-Tintea, C. 1960 Recherches sur le reversement de la traction des moteurs turboréacteurs à l'aide de l'effet Coanda. Rev. Transp. 9. Bucarest.
Teodorescu-Tintea, C. 1962 Contribution à l'étude de l'effet Coanda et des ces applications pratiques. Dissertation l'Institut Polytechnique de Bucarest.
*Teodorescu-Tintea, C. 1964, 1965 Sur l'écoulement des jets plans dans le voisinage de parois solides au profil divergent; l'effet Coanda. Rev. Roum. Sci. Techn. Mech. Appl. 3. Studii Si Cercetari de Mecanicá Applicatá 3. Ed. de l'Acad. de RPR Bucarest.
Thawaites, B. 1960 Incompressible Aerodynamics. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Tollmien, W. 1926 Berechnung turbulenter Ausbreitungsvorgänge. Zeit. Angew. Math. Mech. 6, 468.
Van Dyke, M. 1962, 1964 Higher approximations in boundary-layer theory. Part 1: J. Fluid Mech. 14, 161; Part 2: J. Fluid Mech. 14, 481: Part 3: J. Fluid Mech. 19, 145.
Voedisch, A. 1947 Analytical investigation of the Coanda-effect. H.Q. Air Material Command Wright Field. Dayton Ohio. Tech. Rep. F-Tr-2155-ND.
Walz, A. 1958 Näherungstheorien für die Berechnung von Strömungsgrenzschichten. ZAMP, 9, 695.
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*Walz, A. Näherungslösungen der Navier-Stokesschen Gleichungen mit Integralbedingungen, z. B. in Strömungen mit Querdruckgradient.
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*Werlé, M. 1960 Un film des visualisations hydrauliques des phénomènes relatifs a l'effet Coanda. Effets d'un jet sur une couche limite au faibles vitesses. See also: Essais de soufflage an tunnel hydrodynamique a visualisation. ONERA Note Techn. no. 62.
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*Zandbergen, P. J. 1965 Potential theoretical description of the flow around a configuration used in experiments on the Coanda effect.
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Report on the first European Mechanics Colloquium, on the Coanda effect

  • R. Wille (a1) and H. Fernholz (a1)


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