Balaras, E., Benocci, C. & Piomelli, U. 1996 Two-layer approximate boundary conditions for large-eddy simulations. AIAA J. 34, 1111–1119.
Bathurst, J. C., Thorne, C. R. & Hey, R. D. 1977 Direct measurements of secondary currents in river bends. Nature 269, 504–506.
Blanckaert, K. & Graf, W. H. 2001 Mean flow and turbulence in open-channel bend. J. Hydr. Engng 127, II.1–II.13.
Blanckaert, K. & de Vriend, H. J. 2004 Secondary flow in sharp open-channel bends. J. Fluid Mech. 498, 353–380.
Blanckaert, K. & de Vriend, H. J. 2005 Turbulence characteristics in sharp open-channel bends. Phys. Fluids 17, 055102.
Blokland, T. 1985 Turbulence measurements in a curved flume (in Dutch). MSc thesis, Delft University of Technology.
Booij, R. 2003 Measurements and large-eddy simulations of the flows in some curved flumes. J. Turbulence 4, 1–17.
Bradshaw, P. 1987 Turbulent secondary flows. Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 19, 53–74.
Broglia, R., Pascarelli, A. & Piomelli, U. 2003 Large-eddy simulations of ducts with a free surface. J. Fluid Mech. 484, 223–253.
Brundett, E. & Baines, W. D. 1964 The production and diffusion of vorticity in duct flow. J. Fluid Mech. 19, 375–394.
Calhoun, R. J. & Street, R. L. 2001 Turbulent flow over a wavy surface: neutral case. J. Geoph. Res. 106, 9277–9293.
Demuren, A. O. & Rodi, W. 1984 Calculation of turbulence-driven secondary motion in non-circular ducts. J. Fluid Mech. 140, 189–222.
Einstein, H. A. & Harder, J. A. 1954 Velocity distribution and the boundary layer at channel bends. Trans. AGU 35, 114–120.
Germano, M., Piomelli, U., Moin, P. & Cabot, W. H. 1991 A dynamic subgrid-scale eddy viscosity model. Phys. Fluids A 3, 1760.
Gessner, F. B. 1973 The origin of secondary flow in turbulent flow along a corner. J. Fluid Mech. 59, 1–25.
Gessner, F. B. & Jones, J. B. 1965 On some aspects of fully developed turbulent flow in a rectangular channel. J. Fluid Mech. 23, 689–713.
Gustafsson, I. 1978 A class of first order factorization methods. BIT 18, 142–156.
Hicks, F. E., Jin, Y. C. & Steffler, P. M. 1990 Flow near sloped bank in curved channel. J. Hydr. Engng 116, 55–70.
Kimura, I., Uijttewaal, W. S. J., van Balen, W. & Hosoda, T. 2008 Application of the nonlinear k – ϵ model for simulating curved open channel flows. In Proc. Riverflow 2008, pp. 99–108. Kubaba.
Koken, M. & Constantinescu, G. 2008 An investigation of the flow and scour mechanisms around isolated spur dikes in a shallow open channel: 2. Conditions corresponding to the final stages of the erosion and deposition process. Water Resour. Res. 44, W08407.
Lilly, D. K. 1992 A proposed modification of the germano subgrid-scale closure method. Phys. Fluids A 4, 633.
Liu, K. & Pletcher, R. H. 2008 Anisotropy of a turbulent boundary layer. J. Turbulence 9, 1–18.
Lumley, J. 1978 Computational modelling of turbulent flows. Adv. Appl. Mech. 18, 123.
McCoy, A., Constantinescu, G. & Weber, L. J. 2008 Numerical investigation of flow hydrodynamics in a channel with a series of groynes. J. Hydr. Engng 134, 157–172.
Nezu, I. & Nakagawa, H. 1993 Turbulence in Open-Channel Flows. Balkema.
Pan, J. & Banerjee, S. 1995 A numerical study of free-surface turbulence in channel flow. Phys. Fluids 7, 1649–1664.
Perkins, H. J. 1970 The formation of streamwise vorticity in turbulent flow. J. Fluid Mech. 44, 721–740.
Pope, S. B. 2000 Turbulent Flows. Cambridge University Press.
Pourquié, M. J. B. M. 1994 Large-eddy simulation of a turbulent jet. PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft.
Rozovskii, I. L. 1957 Flow of water in bends of open channels. Acad. Sci. Ukraine SSR (Israeli Prog. Sci. Transl. 1961).
Schwarz, W. R. & Bradshaw, P. 1994 Turbulence structural changes for a three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer in a 30° bend. J. Fluid Mech. 272, 183–209.
Shi, J., Thomas, T. G. & Williams, J. J. R. 2000 Free-surface effects in open channel flow at moderate Froude and Reynolds numbers. J. Hydr. Res. 38, 465–474.
Shiono, K. & Muto, Y. 1998 Complex flow mechanisms in compound meandering channels with overbank flow. J. Fluid. Mech. 376, 221–261.
Simonsen, A. J. & Krogstad, P. Å. 2005 Turbulent stress invariant analysis: clarification of existing terminology. Phys. Fluids 18, 088103.
Speziale, C. G. 1987 On nonlinear k – l and k – ϵ models of turbulence. J. Fluid Mech. 178, 459–475.
Stoesser, T., Ruether, N. & Olsen, N. R. B. 2008 Near-bed flow behaviour in a meandering channel. In Proc. Riverflow 2008, pp. 793–799. Kubaba.
Tanner, W. 1963 Spiral flow in rivers, shallow seas, dust devils, and models. Science 139, 41–42.
Tessicini, F., Iaccarino, G., Fatica, M., Wang, M. & Verzicco, R. 2002 Wall modelling for large-eddy simulation using an immersed boundary method. CTR Ann. Res. Briefs, pp. 181–187.
Thorne, C. R., Zevenbergen, L. W., Pitlick, J. C., Rais, S., Bradley, J. B. & Julien, P. Y. 1985 Direct measurements of secondary currents in a meandering sand-bed river. Nature 315, 746–747.
Tominaga, A., Nagao, M. & Nezu, I. 1999 Flow structure and momentum transport processes in curved open-channels with vegetation. In Proc. 28th IAHR Congress, Graz, Austria. Institute for Hydraulics and Hydrology.
van der Vorst, H. A. 1992 Bi-cgstab: a fast and smoothly converging variant of bi-cg for the solution of nonsymmetric linear systems. SIAM J. Sci. Statist. Comput. 13, 631–644.
Yang, S. Q. 2005 Interactions of boundary shear stress, secondary currents and velocity. Fluid Dyn. Res. 36, 121–136.
Ye, J. & McCorquodale, J. A. 1998 Simulation of curved open-channel flows by 3d hydrodynamic model. J. Hydr. Engng 124, 687–698.
Zeng, J., Constantinescu, G., Blanckaert, K. & Weber, L. 2008 Flow and bathymetry in sharp open-channel bends: experiments and predictions. Water Resour. Res. 44, W09401.