Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5c569c448b-dnb4q Total loading time: 0.408 Render date: 2022-07-03T15:58:45.613Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Superhydrophobic turbulent drag reduction as a function of surface grating parameters

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 April 2014

Hyungmin Park*
Affiliation:
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Guangyi Sun*
Affiliation:
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Chang-Jin “CJ” Kim*
Affiliation:
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
*
Present address: Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744, Korea.
Present address: Institute of Robotics and Automatic Information System, Nankai University, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Intelligent Robotics, Tianjin 300071, China.
§Email address for correspondence: cjkim@ucla.edu

Abstract

Despite the confirmation of slip flows and successful drag reduction (DR) in small-scaled laminar flows, the full impact of superhydrophobic (SHPo) DR remained questionable because of the sporadic and inconsistent experimental results in turbulent flows. Here we report a systematic set of bias-free reduction data obtained by measuring the skin-friction drags on a SHPo surface and a smooth surface at the same time and location in a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) flow. Each monolithic sample consists of a SHPo surface and a smooth surface suspended by flexure springs, all carved out from a $2.7 \times 2.7 {\mathrm{mm}}^{2}$ silicon chip by photolithographic microfabrication. The flow tests allow continuous monitoring of the plastron on the SHPo surfaces, so that the DR data are genuine and consistent. A family of SHPo samples with precise profiles reveals the effects of grating parameters on turbulent DR, which was measured to be as much as ${\sim }75\, \%$.

Type
Papers
Copyright
© 2014 Cambridge University Press 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Bocquet, L. & Lauga, E. 2011 A smooth future? Nat. Mater. 10, 334337.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Busse, A. & Sandham, N. D. 2012 Influence of an anisotropic slip-length boundary condition on turbulent channel flow. Phys. Fluids 24, 055111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Byun, D., Kim, J., Ko, H. S. & Park, H. C. 2008 Direct measurement of slip flows in superhydrophobic microchannels with transverse grooves. Phys. Fluids 20, 113601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ceccio, S. L. 2010 Friction drag reduction of external flows with bubble and gas injection. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 42, 183203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Choi, C.-H. & Kim, C.-J. 2006 Large slip of aqueous liquid flow over a nanoengineered superhydrophobic surface. Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 066001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Choi, C.-H., Ulmanella, U., Kim, J., Ho, C.-M. & Kim, C.-J. 2006 Effective slip and friction reduction in nanograted superhydrophobic microchannels. Phys. Fluids 18, 087105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daniello, R. J., Waterhouse, N. E. & Rothstein, J. P. 2009 Drag reduction in turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces. Phys. Fluids 21, 085103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emami, B., Hemeda, A. A., Amrei, M. M., Luzar, A., Gad-el-Hak, M. & Tafreshi, H. V. 2013 Predicting longevity of submerged superhydrophobic surfaces with parallel grooves. Phys. Fluids 25, 062108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fukagata, K., Kasagi, N. & Koumoutsakos, P. 2006 A theoretical prediction of friction drag reduction in turbulent flow by superhydrophobic surfaces. Phys. Fluids 18, 051703.Google Scholar
Fukuda, K., Tokunaga, J., Nobunaga, T., Nakatani, T., Iwasaki, T. & Kunitake, Y. 2000 Frictional drag reduction with air lubricant over a super-water-repellent surface. J. Mar. Sci. Technol. 5, 123130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hahn, S., Je, J. & Choi, H. 2002 Direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow with permeable walls. J. Fluid Mech. 450, 259285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hasegawa, Y., Frohnapfel, B. & Kasagi, N. 2011 Effects of spatially varying slip length on friction drag reduction in wall turbulence. J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 318, 022028.Google Scholar
Henoch, C., Krupenkin, T. N., Kolodner, P., Taylor, J. A., Hodes, M. S., Lyons, A. M., Peguero, C. & Breuer, K.2006 Turbulent drag reduction using superhydrophobic surfaces, AIAA Paper 2006-3192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jeffs, K., Maynes, D. & Webb, B. W. 2010 Prediction of turbulent channel flow with superhydrophobic walls consisting of micro-ribs and cavities oriented parallel to the flow direction. Intl J. Heat Mass Transfer 53, 786796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jiménez, J. 2004 Turbulent flows over rough walls. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 36, 173196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Joshep, P., Cottin-Bizonne, C., Benoît, J.-M., Ybert, C., Journet, C., Tabeling, P. & Bocquet, L. 2006 Slippage of water past superhyrophobic carbon nanotube forests in microchannels. Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 156104.Google Scholar
Jung, Y. C. & Bhushan, B. 2010 Biomimetic structures for fluid drag reduction in laminar and turbulent flows. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22, 035104.Google ScholarPubMed
Kim, J. 2011 Physics and control of wall turbulence for drag reduction. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 369, 13961411.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lauga, E. & Stone, H. 2003 Effective slip in pressure-driven Stokes flow. J. Fluid Mech. 489, 5577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lay, K. A., Ryo, Y., Simo, M., Perlin, M. & Ceccio, S. L. 2010 Partial cavity drag reduction at high Reynolds numbers. J. Ship Res. 54, 109119.Google Scholar
Lee, C., Choi, C.-H. & Kim, C.-J. 2008 Structured surfaces for a giant liquid slip. Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 064510.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, C. & Kim, C.-J. 2009 Maximizing the giant liquid slip on superhydrophobic microstructures by nanostructuring their sidewalls. Langmuir 25, 1281212818.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, C. & Kim, C.-J. 2011 Underwater restoration and retention of gases on superhydrophobic surfaces for drag reduction. Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 014502.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, C. & Kim, C.-J. 2012 Wetting and active dewetting processes of hierarchically constructed superhydrophobic surfaces fully immersed in water. J. Microelectromech. Syst. 21, 712720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martell, M. B., Perot, J. B. & Rothstein, J. P. 2009 Direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces. J. Fluid Mech. 620, 3141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martell, M. B., Rothstein, J. P. & Perot, J. B. 2010 An analysis of superhydrophobic turbulent drag reduction mechanisms using direct numerical simulation. Phys. Fluids 22, 065102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maynes, D., Jeffs, K., Woolford, B. & Webb, B. W. 2007 Laminar flow in a microchannel with hydrophobic surface patterned microribs oriented parallel to the flow direction. Phys. Fluids 19, 093603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Min, T. & Kim, J. 2004 Effects of hydrophobic surface on skin-friction drag. Phys. Fluids 16, L55L58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Naughton, J. W. & Sheplak, M. 2002 Modern developments in shear-stress measurement. Prog. Aerosp. Sci. 38, 515570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ou, J., Perot, B. & Rothstein, J. P. 2004 Laminar drag reduction in microchannels using ultrahydrophobic surfaces. Phys. Fluids 16, 46354643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Park, H., Park, H. & Kim, J. 2013 A numerical study of the effects of superhydrophobic surface on skin-friction drag in turbulent channel flow. Phys. Fluids 25, 110815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peguero, C. & Breuer, K. 2009 On drag reduction in turbulent channel flow over superhydrophobic surfaces. In Advances in Turbulence XII (ed. Eckhardt, B.), pp. 233236. Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Qi, X. & Song, D.-P. 2012 Minimizing fuel emissions by optimizing vessel schedules in liner shipping with uncertain port times. Transp. Res. E 48, 863880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rothstein, J. P. 2010 Slip on superhydrophobic surfaces. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 42, 89109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Samaha, M. A., Tafreshi, H. V. & Gad-el-Hak, M. 2012a Influence of flow on longevity of superhydrophobic coatings. Langmuir 28, 97599766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Samaha, M. A., Tafreshi, H. V. & Gad-el-Hak, M. 2012b Superhydrophobic surfaces: from the lotus leaf to the submarine. C.R. Méc. 340, 1834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tsai, P., Peters, A. M., Pirat, C., Wessling, M., Lammertink, R. G. H. & Lohse, D. 2009 Quantifying effective slip length over micro patterned hydrophobic surfaces. Phys. Fluids 21, 112002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walsh, M. J.1982 Turbulent boundary layer drag reduction using riblets AIAA Paper 1982-0169.Google Scholar
Winkler, J. P.2008 Shipping wasting 4.37 million barrels of oil a day. Reuters Press Release, http://www.reuters.com/article/2008/06/24/idUS82323+24-Jun-2008+BW20080624.Google Scholar
Woolford, B., Maynes, D. & Webb, B. W. 2009a Liquid flow through microchannels with grooved walls under wetting and superhydrophobic conditions. Microfluid. Nanofluid. 7, 121135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woolford, B., Prince, J., Maynes, D. & Webb, B. W. 2009b Particle image velocimetry characterization of turbulent channel flow with rib patterned superhydrophobic walls. Phys. Fluids 21, 085106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhao, J., Du, X. & Shi, X. 2007 Experimental research on friction–reduction with super-hydrophobic surfaces. J. Mar. Sci. Appl. 6, 5861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Park et al. supplementary movie

Comparative displacement of a SHPo surface and a smooth surface measured in in a turbulent boundary layer flow (Reτ ~ 250) – 50× slower. It is clearly seen that the SHPo surface (50 μm pitch and 90% GF) is dragged less than a smooth counterpart in a turbulent flow which indicates a skin-friction drag reduction.

Download Park et al. supplementary movie(Video)
Video 829 KB
Supplementary material: PDF

Park et al. supplementary material

Park supplementary material

Download Park et al. supplementary material(PDF)
PDF 1 MB
124
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Superhydrophobic turbulent drag reduction as a function of surface grating parameters
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Superhydrophobic turbulent drag reduction as a function of surface grating parameters
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Superhydrophobic turbulent drag reduction as a function of surface grating parameters
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *