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The impact of an oil droplet on an oil layer on water

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 November 2020

Dohyung Kim
School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do16419, Republic of Korea
Jinseok Lee
School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do16419, Republic of Korea
Arijit Bose
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI02881, USA
Ildoo Kim*
Department of Mechatronics, Konkuk University, Chungju27478, Republic of Korea
Jinkee Lee*
School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do16419, Republic of Korea
Email addresses for correspondence:,
Email addresses for correspondence:,


We present a study of droplet impingement on a two-layer liquid, specifically an oil droplet impinging on a layer of oil on water. In our experiments, the diameter and impact velocity of the droplet and the thickness of the oil layer were varied, and the maximum depth of the crater and the maximum height of the Worthington jet were measured. When the thickness of the oil layer was less than ${\sim }1.6$ times the droplet diameter, the depth of the crater depended on the thickness of the oil layer. Otherwise, the two-layer liquid behaved like a single layer. This observation is rationalized by considering the oil–water interface, whose deformation is negligible when the oil layer is thick but becomes significant when the oil layer is thinner. We define an effective Weber number for the two-layer liquid and show that the height of the Worthington jet is proportional to this effective Weber number.

JFM Papers
© The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press

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