1. Oken, E. Secular trends in birthweight. Nestle Nutrition Institute Workshop Series. 2013; 71, 103–114.
2. Chiavaroli, V, Derraik, JGB, Hofman, PL, Cutfield, WS. Born large for gestational age: bigger is not always better. J Pediatr. 2016; 170, 307–311.
3. Wei, JN, Sung, FC, Li, CY, et al. Low birth weight and high birth weight infants are both at an increased risk to have type 2 diabetes among schoolchildren in Taiwan. Diabetes Care. 2003; 26, 343–348.
4. Skilton, MR, Siitonen, N, Wurtz, P, et al. High birth weight is associated with obesity and increased carotid wall thickness in young adults: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014; 34, 1064–1068.
5. Johnsson, IW, Haglund, B, Ahlsson, F, Gustafsson, J. A high birth weight is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Pediatr Obes. 2015; 10, 77–83.
6. Innes, K, Byers, T, Schymura, M. Birth characteristics and subsequent risk for breast cancer in very young women. Am J Epidemiol. 2000; 152, 1121–1128.
7. Kramer, MS, Morin, I, Yang, H, et al. Why are babies getting bigger? Temporal trends in fetal growth and its determinants. J Pediatr. 2002; 141, 538–542.
8. Ahlsson, F, Gustafsson, J, Tuvemo, T, Lundgren, M. Females born large for gestational age have a doubled risk of giving birth to large for gestational age infants. Acta Paediatr. 2007; 96, 358–362.
9. Magnus, P, Gjessing, HK, Skrondal, A, Skjærven, R. Paternal contribution to birth weight. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2001; 55, 873–877.
10. L’Abee, C, Vrieze, I, Kluck, T, et al. Parental factors affecting the weights of the placenta and the offspring. J Perinat Med. 2011; 39, 27–34.
11. Klebanoff, MA, Mednick, BR, Schulsinger, C, Secher, NJ, Shiono, PH. Father’s effect on infant birth weight. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998; 178, 1022–1026.
12. Mattsson, K, Rylander, L. Influence of maternal and paternal birthweight on offspring birthweight – a population-based intergenerational study. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2013; 27, 138–144.
13. Pomeroy, E, Wells, JC, Cole, TJ, O’Callaghan, M, Stock, JT. Relationships of maternal and paternal anthropometry with neonatal body size, proportions and adiposity in an Australian cohort. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2015; 156, 625–636.
14. Myklestad, K, Vatten, LJ, Magnussen, EB, et al. Offspring birth weight and cardiovascular risk in parents—a population-based HUNT 2 study. Am J Epidemiol. 2012; 175, 546–555.
15. Leary, S, Fall, C, Osmond, C, et al. Geographical variation in relationships between parental body size and offspring phenotype at birth. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006; 85, 1066–1079.
16. Sletner, L, Nakstad, B, Yajnik, CS, et al. Ethnic differences in neonatal body composition in a multi-ethnic population and the impact of parental factors: a population-based cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2013; 8, e73058.
17. Nahum, GG, Stanislaw, H. Relationship of paternal factors to birth weight. J Reprod Med. 2003; 48, 963–968.
18. Morrison, J, Williams, GM, Najman, JM, Andersen, MJ. The influence of paternal height and weight on birth-weight. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1991; 31, 114–116.
19. Chen, Y-P, Xiao, X-M, Li, J, et al. Paternal body mass index (BMI) is associated with offspring intrauterine growth in a gender dependent manner. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7, e36329.
20. Tyrrell, JS, Yaghootkar, H, Freathy, RM, Hattersley, AT, Frayling, TM. Parental diabetes and birthweight in 236,030 individuals in the UK Biobank Study. Int J Epidemiol. 2013; 42, 1714–1723.
21. Hypponen, E, Smith, GD, Power, C. Parental diabetes and birth weight of offspring: intergenerational cohort study. BMJ. 2003; 326, 19–20.
22. Lindsay, RS, Dabelea, D, Roumain, J, et al. Type 2 diabetes and low birth weight: the role of paternal inheritance in the association of low birth weight and diabetes. Diabetes. 2000; 49, 445–449.
23. Wannamethee, SG, Lawlor, DA, Whincup, PH, et al. Birthweight of offspring and paternal insulin resistance and paternal diabetes in late adulthood: cross sectional survey. Diabetologia. 2004; 47, 12–18.
24. Hillman, S, Peebles, DM, Williams, DJ. Paternal metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors for fetal growth restriction: a case-control study. Diabetes Care. 2013; 36, 1675–1680.
25. McCowan, LM, Thompson, JM, Taylor, RS, et al. Clinical prediction in early pregnancy of infants small for gestational age by customised birthweight centiles: findings from a healthy nulliparous cohort. PLoS ONE. 2013; 8, e70917.
26. Galbraith, C, Jenkin, G, Davis, P, Coope, P. New Zealand Socio-economic Index 1996 – Users’ Guide. 2003. Statistics New Zealand: Wellington.
27. Villar, J, Ismail, LC, Victora, CG, et al. International standards for newborn weight, length, and head circumference by gestational age and sex: the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project. Lancet. 2014; 384, 857–868.
28. Lean, MEJ, Han, TS, Morrison, CE. Waist circumference as a measure for indicating need for weight management. BMJ. 1995; 311, 158–161.
29. Vatcheva, KP, Lee, M, McCormick, JB, Rahbar, MH. Multicollinearity in regression analyses conducted in epidemiologic studies. Epidemiology. 2016; 6, 227.
30. Hosmer, DW, Lemeshow, S. Assessing the fit of the model. In Applied Logistic Regression (eds. Shewhart WA, Wilks SS, Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S), 2005; 2nd edn. pp. 143–202. John Wiley & Sons.
31. King, JE. Standardized coefficients in logistic regression. Annual Meeting of the Southwest Educational Research Association. San Antonio, TX, USA; 2007.
32. Liu, S, Metcalfe, A, Leon, JA, et al. Evaluation of the INTERGROWTH-21st project newborn standard for use in Canada. PLoS ONE. 2017; 12, e0172910.
33. Wood, AR, Esko, T, Yang, J, et al. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height. Nat Genet. 2014; 46, 1173–1186.
34. Derraik, JGB, Ahlsson, F, Diderholm, B, Lundgren, M. Obesity rates in two generations of Swedish women entering pregnancy, and associated obesity risk among adult daughters. Sci Rep. 2015; 5, 16692.
35. Olmos, PR, Borzone, GR, Olmos, RI, et al. Gestational diabetes and pre-pregnancy overweight: possible factors involved in newborn macrosomia. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2012; 38, 208–214.
36. Kc, K, Shakya, S, Zhang, H. Gestational diabetes mellitus and macrosomia: a literature review. Ann Nutr Metab. 2015; 66, 14–20.
37. Catalano, PM, Shankar, K. Obesity and pregnancy: mechanisms of short term and long term adverse consequences for mother and child. BMJ. 2017; 356, j1.
38. Suter, M, Abramovici, A, Showalter, L, et al. In utero tobacco exposure epigenetically modifies placental CYP1A1 expression. Metabolism. 2010; 59, 1481–1490.