Hill, JO, Peters, JC, Catenacci, VA, Wyatt, HR. International strategies to address obesity. Obes Rev. 2008; 9(Suppl 1), 41–47.
World Health Organization. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic, 1999. World Health Organization, Geneva.
Field, CJ. Early risk determinants and later health outcomes: implications for research prioritization and the food supply. Summary of the workshop. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 89, 1533S–1539S.
Newnham, JP, Pennell, CE, Lye, SJ, Rampono, J, Challis, JRG. Early life origins of obesity. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2009; 36, 227–244.
Frayling, TM, Timpson, NJ, Weedon, MN, et al. . A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity. Science. 2007; 316, 889–894.
Dina, C, Meyre, D, Gallina, S, Durand, E, et al. . Variation in FTO contributes to childhood obesity and severe adult obesity. Nat Genet. 2007; 39, 724–726.
Scuteri, A, Sanna, S, Chen, WM, et al. . Genome-wide association scan shows genetic variants in the FTO gene are associated with obesity-related traits. PLoS Genet. 2007; 3, e115, doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0030115.
Hindorff, LA, Junkins, HA, Mehta, JP, Manolio, TA. A Catalog of Published Genome-Wide Association Studies. Retrieved 8 September 2009 from www.genome.gov/26525384. Retrieved 8 September 2009.
Bouchard, C. Childhood obesity: are genetic differences involved?
Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 89, 1494S–1501S.
Wardle, J, Carnell, S, Haworth, CM, et al. . Obesity associated genetic variation in FTO is associated with diminished satiety. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008; 93, 3640–3643.
Haworth, CM, Carnell, S, Meaburn, EL, et al. . Increasing heritability of BMI and stronger associations with the FTO gene over childhood. Obesity. 2008; 16, 2663–2668.
Jess, T, Zimmermann, E, Kring, SI, et al. . Impact on weight dynamics and general growth of the common FTO rs9939609: a longitudinal Danish cohort study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008; 32, 1388–1394.
Lopez-Bermejo, A, Petry, CJ, Diaz, M, et al. . The association between the FTO gene and fat mass in humans develops by the postnatal age of two weeks. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008; 93, 1501–1505.
Newnham, JP, Evans, SF, Michael, CA, Stanley, FJ, Landau, LI. Effects of frequent ultrasound during pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 1993; 342, 887–891.
Hofman, A, Jaddoe, VW, Mackenbach, JP, et al. . Growth, development and health from early fetal life until young adulthood: the Generation R Study. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2004; 18, 61–72.
Jaddoe, VW, Mackenbach, JP, Moll, HA, et al. . The Generation R Study: design and cohort profile. Eur J Epidemiol. 2006; 21, 475–484.
Williams, LA, Evans, SF, Newnham, JP. Prospective cohort study of factors influencing the relative weights of the placenta and the newborn infant. BMJ. 1997; 314, 1864–1868.
Evans, S, Newnham, J, MacDonald, W, Hall, C. Characterisation of the possible effect on birthweight following frequent prenatal ultrasound examinations. Early Hum Dev. 1996; 45, 203–214.
Jaddoe, VW, Bakker, R, van Duijn, CM, et al. . The Generation R Study Biobank: a resource for epidemiological studies in children and their parents. Eur J Epidemiol. 2007; 22, 917–923.
Jaddoe, VW, van Duijn, CM, van der Heijden, AJ, et al. . The Generation R Study: design and cohort update until the age of 4 years. Eur J Epidemiol. 2008; 23, 801–811.
Hadlock, FP, Harrist, RB, Carpenter, RJ, Deter, RL, Park, SK. Sonographic estimation of fetal weight. The value of femur length in addition to head and abdomen measurements. Radiology. 1984; 150, 535–540.
Miller, SA, Dykes, DD, Polesky, HF. A simple salting out procedure for extracting DNA from human nucleated cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988; 16, 1215.
Laird, NM, Ware, JH. Random-effects models for longitudinal data. Biometrics. 1982; 38, 963–974.
Gurrin, LC, Blake, KV, Evans, SF, Newnham, JP. Statistical measures of foetal growth using linear mixed models applied to the foetal origins hypothesis. Stat Med. 2001; 20, 3391–3409.
Frazer, KA, Ballinger, DG, Cox, DR, et al. . A second generation human haplotype map of over 3.1 million SNPs. Nature. 2007; 449, 851–861.
Cha, SW, Choi, SM, Kim, KS, et al. . Replication of genetic effects of FTO polymorphisms on BMI in a Korean population. Obesity. 2008; 16, 2187–2189.
Chang, YC, Liu, PH, Lee, WJ, et al. . Common variation in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene confers risk of obesity and modulates BMI in the Chinese population. Diabetes. 2008; 57, 2245–2252.
Newnham, JP. Smoking in pregnancy. Fetal Med Rev. 1991; 3, 115–132.
Simpson, WJ. A preliminary report on cigarette smoking and the incidence of prematurity. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1957; 73, 808–815.
Lumley, J. Stopping smoking. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1987; 94, 289–292.
Cecil, JE, Tavendale, R, Watt, P, Hetherington, MM, Palmer, CN. An obesity-associated FTO gene variant and increased energy intake in children. N Engl J Med. 2008; 359, 2558–2566.
Fischer, J, Koch, L, Emmerling, C, et al. . Inactivation of the FTO gene protects from obesity. Nature. 2009; 458, 894–898.
Hennig, BJ, Fulford, AJ, Sirugo, G, et al. . FTO gene variation and measures of body mass in an African population. BMC Med Genet. 2009; 10, 21, doi:10.1186/1471-2350-10-21.
Bassols, J, Prats-Puig, A, Vazquez-Ruiz, M , et al. Placental FTO expression relates to fetal growth. International Journal of Obesity, epublished 30 March 2010, doi:10.1038/ijo.2010.62.
Gerken, T, Girard, CA, Tung, YC, et al. . The obesity-associated FTO gene encodes a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent nucleic acid demethylase. Science. 2007; 318, 1469–1472.
Clifton, IJ, McDonough, MA, Ehrismann, D, et al. . Structural studies on 2-oxoglutarate oxygenases and related double-stranded beta-helix fold proteins. J Inorg Biochem. 2006; 100, 644–669.
Hausinger, RP. FeII/alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent hydroxylases and related enzymes. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2004; 39, 21–68.
Murphy, VE, Smith, R, Giles, WB, and Clifton, VL. Endocrine regulation of human fetal growth: the role of the mother, placenta, and fetus. Endocr Rev. 2006; 27, 141–169.
Lam, SK, To, WK, Duthie, SJ, Ma, HK. The effect of smoking during pregnancy on the incidence of low birth weight among Chinese parturients. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1992; 32, 125–128.
Delpisheh, A, Brabin, L, Topping, J, Reyad, M, Tang, AW, Brabin, BJ. A case-control study of CYP1A1, GSTT1 and GSTM1 gene polymorphisms, pregnancy smoking and fetal growth restriction. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009; 143, 38–42.
Hayashi, S, Watanabe, J, Kawaijiri, K. Hight susceptibility to lung cancer analyzed in terms of combined genotypes of the P450IA1 and Mu-class glutathione S-transferase genes. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1992; 83, 866–870.
Nakachi, K, Imai, K, Hayashi, S, Kawajiri, K. Polymorphisms of the CYP1A1 and glutathione S-transferase genes associated with susceptibility to lung cancer in relation to cigarette dose in a Japanese population. Cancer Res. 1993; 53, 2994–2999.
Katoh, T, Inatomi, H, Nagaoka, A, Sugita, A. Cytochrome P450IA1 gene polymorphism and homozygous deletion of the glutathione S-transferase M1 gene in urothelial cancer patients. Carcinogenesis. 1995; 16, 655–657.
Aagaard-Tillery, K, Spong, CY, Thorm, E, Wapner, RJ. Pharmacogenomics of maternal tobacoo use: metabolic gene polymorphisms and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 115, 568–577.