Ebbeling, CB, Pawlak, DB, Ludwig, DS. Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure. Lancet. 2002; 360, 473–482.
Beyerlein, A, Toschke, A, Von Kries, R. Risk factors for childhood overweight: shift of the mean body mass index and shift of the upper percentiles: results from a cross-sectional study. Int J Obes. 2010; 34, 642–648.
Olds, TS, Tomkinson, GR, Ferrar, KE, Maher, CA. Trends in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in Australia between 1985 and 2008. Int J Obes. 2010; 34, 57–66.
Ogden, CL, Carroll, MD, Curtin, LR, Lamb, MM, Flegal, KM. Prevalence of high body mass index in US children and adolescents, 2007-2008. JAMA. 2010; 303, 242–249.
Cnattingius, S. The epidemiology of smoking during pregnancy: smoking prevalence, maternal characteristics, and pregnancy outcomes. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004; 6, S125–S140.
Hodyl, NA, Stark, MJ, Scheil, W, Grzeskowiak, LE, Clifton, VL. Perinatal outcomes following maternal asthma and cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Eur Respir J. 2013; 43, 704–716.
Toschke, AM, Montgomery, SM, Pfeiffer, U, Von Kries, R. Early intrauterine exposure to tobacco-inhaled products and obesity. Am J Epidemiol. 2003; 158, 1068–1074.
Oken, E, Huh, SY, Taveras, EM, Rich-Edwards, JW, Gillman, MW. Associations of maternal prenatal smoking with child adiposity and blood pressure. Obes Res. 2005; 13, 2021–2028.
Hogan, JW, Roy, J, Korkontzelou, C. Handling drop-out in longitudinal studies. Stat Med. 2004; 23, 1455–1497.
Greenland, S. Model-based estimation of relative risks and other epidemiologic measures in studies of common outcomes and in case-control studies. Am J Epidemiol. 2004; 160, 301–305.
Toschke, A, Koletzko, B, Slikker, W, Hermann, M, von Kries, R. Childhood obesity is associated with maternal smoking in pregnancy. Eur J Pediatr. 2002; 161, 445–448.
Pearlstein, T, Howard, M, Salisbury, A, Zlotnick, C. Postpartum depression. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009; 200, 357–364.
von Kries, R, Toschke, AM, Koletzko, B, Slikker, W Jr. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity. Am J Epidemiol. 2002; 156, 954–961.
Wang, L, Mamudu, H, Wu, T. The impact of maternal prenatal smoking on the development of childhood overweight in school-aged children. Pediatr Obes. 2012; 8, 178–188.
Von Kries, R, Bolte, G, Baghi, L, Toschke, AM. Parental smoking and childhood obesity—is maternal smoking in pregnancy the critical exposure?
Int J Epidemiol. 2008; 37, 210–216.
Gravel, J, Potter, B, Dubois, L. Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoke and offspring risk of excess weight is independent of both birth weight and catch-up growth. ISRN Epidemiol. 2013; 2013, 206120.
Beyerlein, A, Rückinger, S, Toschke, AM, Rosario, AS, von Kries, R. Is low birth weight in the causal pathway of the association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and higher BMI in the offspring?
Eur J Epidemiol. 2011; 26, 413–420.
Rückinger, S, Beyerlein, A, Jacobsen, G, von Kries, R, Vik, T. Growth in utero and body mass index at age 5 years in children of smoking and non-smoking mothers. Early Hum Dev. 2010; 86, 773–777.
Yang, S, Decker, A, Kramer, MS. Exposure to parental smoking and child growth and development: a cohort study. BMC Pediatr. 2013; 13, 104.
Leary, SD, Smith, GD, Rogers, IS, et al. Smoking during pregnancy and offspring fat and lean mass in childhood. Obesity. 2006; 14, 2284–2293.
Wideroe, M, Vik, T, Jacobsen, G, Bakketeig, LS. Does maternal smoking during pregnancy cause childhood overweight?
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2003; 17, 171–179.
Chen, A, Pennell, ML, Klebanoff, MA, Rogan, WJ, Longnecker, MP. Maternal smoking during pregnancy in relation to child overweight: follow-up to age 8 years. Int J Epidemiol. 2006; 35, 121–130.
Power, C, Jefferis, B. Fetal environment and subsequent obesity: a study of maternal smoking. Int J Epidemiol. 2002; 31, 413–419.
Oken, E, Levitan, EB, Gillman, MW. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and child overweight: systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Obes. 2008; 32, 201–210.
Harris, H, Willett, W, Michels, K. Parental smoking during pregnancy and risk of overweight and obesity in the daughter. Int J Obes. 2013; 37, 1356–1363.
Mendez, MA, Torrent, M, Ferrer, C, Ribas-Fitó, N, Sunyer, J. Maternal smoking very early in pregnancy is related to child overweight at age 5–7 y. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 87, 1906–1913.
Durmuş, B, Kruithof, CJ, Gillman, MH, et al. Parental smoking during pregnancy, early growth, and risk of obesity in preschool children: the Generation R Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011; 94, 164–171.
Grzeskowiak, LE, Gilbert, AL, Morrison, JL. Prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of childhood overweight. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2012; 3, 253–261.
Kuczmarski, RJ, Ogden, CL, Guo, SS, et al. 2000 CDC growth charts for the United States: methods and development. Vital Health Stat 11. 2002; 246, 1–190.
Wright, C, Booth, I, Buckler, J, et al. Growth reference charts for use in the United Kingdom. Arch Dis Child. 2002; 86, 11–14.
Cole, TJ, Bellizzi, MC, Flegal, KM, Dietz, WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ. 2000; 320, 1240–1245.
McLean, A, Scott, J, Keane, R, Sage, L, Chan, A. Validation of the 1994 South Australian perinatal data collection form. 2001. Pregnancy Outcome Unit, Epidemiology Branch, Department of Human Services: Adelaide, South Australia.
Grzeskowiak, LE, Gilbert, AL, Morrison, JL. Neonatal outcomes following late gestation exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2012; 32, 615–621.
Blair, EM, Liu, Y, De Klerk, NH, Lawrence, DM. Optimal fetal growth for the Caucasian singleton and assessment of appropriateness of fetal growth: an analysis of a total population perinatal database. BMC Pediatr. 2005; 5, 13.
Raum, E, Küpper-Nybelen, J, Lamerz, A, et al. Tobacco smoke exposure before, during, and after pregnancy and risk of overweight at age 6. Obesity. 2011; 19, 2411–2417.
Hales, CN, Barker, DJ. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Br Med Bull. 2001; 60, 5–20.
Prentice, AM. Early influences on human energy regulation: thrifty genotypes and thrifty phenotypes. Physiol Behav. 2005; 86, 640–645.
Painter, RC, Roseboom, TJ, Bleker, OP. Prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine and disease in later life: an overview. Reprod Toxicol. 2005; 20, 345–352.
Ino, T. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring obesity: meta-analysis. Pediatr Int. 2010; 52, 94–99.
Florath, I, Kohler, M, Weck, M, et al. Association of pre- and post-natal parental smoking with offspring body mass index: an 8-year follow-up of a birth cohort. Pediatr Obes. 2013; 1–13.
Iliadou, AN, Koupil, I, Villamor, E, et al. Familial factors confound the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and young adult offspring overweight. Int J Epiemiol. 2010; 39, 1193–1202.
Gilman, SE, Gardener, H, Buka, SL. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and children’s cognitive and physical development: a causal risk factor?
Am J Epidemiol. 2008; 168, 522–531.
Mamun, AA, O’Callaghan, MJ, Williams, GM, Najman, JM. Maternal smoking during pregnancy predicts adult offspring cardiovascular risk factors–evidence from a community-based large birth cohort study. PLoS One. 2012; 7, e41106.
Riedel, C, Schönberger, K, Yang, S, et al. Parental smoking and childhood obesity: higher effect estimates for maternal smoking in pregnancy compared with paternal smoking—a meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol. 2014; 43, 1593–1606.
Richmond, RC, Simpkin, AJ, Woodward, G, et al. Prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and offspring DNA methylation across the lifecourse: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Hum Mol Genet. 2015; 24, 2201–2217.
Monasta, L, Batty, G, Cattaneo, A, et al. Early-life determinants of overweight and obesity: a review of systematic reviews. Obes Rev. 2010; 11, 695–708.