1. Writing, G, Roger, VL, Go, AS, et al. Executive summary: heart disease and stroke statistics – 2011 update. Circulation. 2011; 123, 459–463.
2. Fryar, CD, Hirsch, R, Eberhardt, MS, Yoon, SS, Wright, JD. Hypertension, high serum total cholesterol, and diabetes: racial and ethnic prevalence differences in U.S. adults, 1999-2006. NCHS Data Brief. 2010; 36, 1–8.
4. Thom, T, Haase, N, Rosamond, W, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics – 2006 update: a report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation. 2006; 113, e85–e151.
5. Huda, SS, Brodie, LE, Sattar, N. Obesity in pregnancy: prevalence and metabolic consequences. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010; 15, 70–76.
6. Galtier-Dereure, F, Boegner, C, Bringer, J. Obesity and pregnancy: complications and cost. American J Clin Nutr. 2000; 71(5 Suppl.), 1242S–1248S.
7. Kim, SY, Dietz, PM, England, L, Morrow, B, Callaghan, WM. Trends in pre-pregnancy obesity in nine states, 1993-2003. Obesity. 2007; 15, 986–993.
8. Lu, GC, Rouse, DJ, DuBard, M, et al. The effect of the increasing prevalence of maternal obesity on perinatal morbidity. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001; 185, 845–849.
9. Catalano, PM, Ehrenberg, HM. The short- and long-term implications of maternal obesity on the mother and her offspring. BJOG. 2006; 113, 1126–1133.
10. Whitaker, RC. Predicting preschooler obesity at birth: the role of maternal obesity in early pregnancy. Pediatrics. 2004; 114, e29–e36.
11. Boney, CM, Verma, A, Tucker, R, Vohr, BR. Metabolic syndrome in childhood: association with birth weight, maternal obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Pediatrics. 2005; 115, e290–e296.
12. Koupil, I, Toivanen, P. Social and early-life determinants of overweight and obesity in 18-year-old Swedish men. Int J Obes. 2008; 32, 73–81.
13. Mingrone, G, Manco, M, Valera Mora, ME, et al. Influence of maternal obesity on insulin sensitivity and secretion in offspring. Diabetes Care. 2008; 31, 1872–1876.
14. Desai, M, Jellyman, JK, Han, G, et al. Maternal obesity and high-fat diet program offspring metabolic syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014; 211, 237.e231–237.e237.
15. Forsen, T, Eriksson, JG, Tuomilehto, J, et al. Mother’s weight in pregnancy and coronary heart disease in a cohort of Finnish men: follow up study. BMJ. 1997; 315, 837–840.
16. Khan, IY, Dekou, V, Douglas, G, et al. A high-fat diet during rat pregnancy or suckling induces cardiovascular dysfunction in adult offspring. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005; 288, R127–R133.
17. Khan, IY, Taylor, PD, Dekou, V, et al. Gender-linked hypertension in offspring of lard-fed pregnant rats. Hypertension. 2003; 41, 168–175.
18. Samuelsson, AM, Matthews, PA, Argenton, M, et al. Diet-induced obesity in female mice leads to offspring hyperphagia, adiposity, hypertension, and insulin resistance: a novel murine model of developmental programming. Hypertension. 2008; 51, 383–392.
19. Oben, JA, Mouralidarane, A, Samuelsson, AM, et al. Maternal obesity during pregnancy and lactation programs the development of offspring non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice. J Hepatol. 2010; 52, 913–920.
20. Oben, JA, Patel, T, Mouralidarane, A, et al. Maternal obesity programmes offspring development of non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010; 394, 24–28.
21. Suter, MA, Ma, J, Vuguin, PM, et al. In utero exposure to a maternal high-fat diet alters the epigenetic histone code in a murine model. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014; 210, 463–463.
22. Persichetti, A, Sciuto, R, Rea, S, et al. Prevalence, mass, and glucose-uptake activity of 18F-FDG-detected brown adipose tissue in humans living in a temperate zone of Italy. PLoS One. 2013; 8, e63391.
23. Lo Kinyui, A, Sun, L. Turning WAT into BAT: a review on regulators controlling the browning of white adipocytes. Biosci Rep. 2013; 33, e00065.
24. Fenzl, A, Kiefer, FW. Brown adipose tissue and thermogenesis. Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig. 2014; 19, 25–37.
25. Porter, C, Herndon, DN, Bhattarai, N, et al. Severe burn injury induces thermogenically functional mitochondria in murine white adipose tissue. Shock. 2015; 44, 258–264.
26. Bytautiene, E, Tamayo, E, Kechichian, T, et al. Prepregnancy obesity and sFlt1-induced preeclampsia in mice: developmental programming model of metabolic syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 204, 398.e391–398.e398.
27. Porter, C, Hurren, NM, Cotter, MV, et al. Mitochondrial respiratory capacity and coupling control decline with age in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2015; 309, E224–E232.
28. Cannon, B, Nedergaard, J. Respiratory and thermogenic capacities of cells and mitochondria from brown and white adipose tissue. Methods Mol Biol. 2001; 155, 295–303.
29. Cannon, B, Nedergaard, J. Nonshivering thermogenesis and its adequate measurement in metabolic studies. J Exp Biol. 2010; 214, 242–253.
30. Cannon, B, Nedergaard, J. Studies of thermogenesis and mitochondrial function in adipose tissues. Methods Mol Biol. 2008; 456, 109–121.
31. Cannon, B, Nedergaard, J. Brown adipose tissue: function and physiological significance. Physiol Rev. 2004; 84, 277–359.
32. Matthias, A, Ohlson, KB, Fredriksson, JM, et al. Thermogenic responses in brown fat cells are fully UCP1-dependent. UCP2 or UCP3 do not substitute for UCP1 in adrenergically or fatty acid-induced thermogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2000; 275, 25073–25081.
33. Nedergaard, J, Cannon, B. UCP1 mRNA does not produce heat. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2013; 1831, 943–949.
34. Shabalina, IG, Ost, M, Petrovic, N, et al. Uncoupling protein-1 is not leaky. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010; 1797, 773–784.
35. Shabalina, IG, Petrovic, N, de Jong, JM, et al. UCP1 in brite/beige adipose tissue mitochondria is functionally thermogenic. Cell Rep. 2013; 5, 1196–1203.
36. Elahi, MM, Cagampang, FR, Mukhtar, D, et al. Long-term maternal high-fat feeding from weaning through pregnancy and lactation predisposes offspring to hypertension, raised plasma lipids and fatty liver in mice. Br J Nutr. 2009; 102, 514–519.
37. Watkins, AJ, Lucas, ES, Wilkins, A, Cagampang, FRA, Fleming, TP. Maternal periconceptional and gestational low protein diet affects mouse offspring growth, cardiovascular and adipose phenotype at 1 year of age. PLoS One. 2011; 6, e28745.
38. Ojha, S, Robinson, L, Yazdani, M, Symonds, ME, Budge, H. Brown adipose tissue genes in pericardial adipose tissue of newborn sheep are downregulated by maternal nutrient restriction in late gestation. Pediatr Res. 2013; 74, 246–251.
39. Felipe, A, Villarroya, F, Mampel, T. Effects of maternal hypocaloric diet feeding on neonatal rat brown adipose tissue. Biol Neonate. 1988; 53, 105–112.
40. Priego, T, Sanchez, J, Garcia, A, Palou, A, Pico, C. Maternal dietary fat affects milk fatty acid profile and impacts on weight gain and thermogenic capacity of suckling rats. Lipids. 2013; 48, 481–495.
41. Myers, DA, Hanson, K, Mlynarczyk, M, Kaushal, KM, Ducsay, CA. Long-term hypoxia modulates expression of key genes regulating adipose function in the late-gestation ovine fetus. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008; 294, R1312–R1318.
42. de Almeida, DL, Fabricio, GS, Trombini, AB, et al. Early overfeed-induced obesity leads to brown adipose tissue hypoactivity in rats. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2013; 32, 1621–1630.
43. Xiao, XQ, Williams, SM, Grayson, BE, et al. Excess weight gain during the early postnatal period is associated with permanent reprogramming of brown adipose tissue adaptive thermogenesis. Endocrinology. 2007; 148, 4150–4159.
44. Carey Satterfield, M, Dunlap, K, Keisler, D, Bazer, F, Wu, G. Arginine nutrition and fetal brown adipose tissue development in diet-induced obese sheep. Amino Acids. 2012; 43, 1593–1603.
45. Maurer, AD, Reimer, RA. Maternal consumption of high-prebiotic fibre or -protein diets during pregnancy and lactation differentially influences satiety hormones and expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in offspring in rats. Br J Nutr. 2011; 105, 329–338.
46. Arias, N, Aguirre, L, Fernandez-Quintela, A, et al. MicroRNAs involved in the browning process of adipocytes. J Physiol Biochem. 2015; 72, 509–521.
47. Guller, I, McNaughton, S, Crowley, T, et al. Comparative analysis of microRNA expression in mouse and human brown adipose tissue. BMC Genomics. 2015; 16, 1–11.
48. Quevedo, S, Roca, P, Pico, C, Palou, A. Sex-associated differences in cold-induced UCP1 synthesis in rodent brown adipose tissue. Pflugers Arch. 1998; 436, 689–695.