Skip to main content Accessibility help

Teat anatomy affects requirements for udder preparation in Mediterranean buffaloes

  • Sarah Ambord (a1), Michael H Stoffel (a2) and Rupert M Bruckmaier (a1)


The present study was conducted to assess the interrelation between teat anatomy and machine milking in dairy buffaloes raised in Switzerland. A 3-min pre-stimulation induced milk ejection before cluster attachment in most cases and caused an optimal milk removal during machine milking. In an additional experiment, longitudinal cross-section ultrasound was obtained before and after a 3-min pre-stimulation. Teat wall thickness, teat diameter, cisternal diameter and teat canal length were evaluated. It was observed that 3-min pre-stimulation dramatically reduced teat canal length whereas all the other anatomical parameters remained unchanged. The vacuum needed to open the teat canal was also measured before and after a 3-min pre-stimulation by using a special teat cup with only the mouthpiece of the liner remaining on the top of the teat cup (no liner, no pulsation). Without pre-stimulation but after wetting the teat canal by stripping one squirt of milk out of the teat, no milk could be withdrawn with a vacuum up to 39 kPa. However, after pre-stimulation, milk flow occurred in all buffaloes at a vacuum between 16 and 38 kPa. In the last experiment, the teat tissue was examined in slaughtered buffaloes and compared with teat tissue of cows. No difference was noted in histological sections and teat canal length was similar in cows and buffaloes. Proximal to the teat canal, the teat did not pass into an open cistern but the lumen was collapsed. In conclusion, buffaloes need to be well pre-stimulated because the tissue above the teat canal provides additional teat closure before milk ejection. Therefore, milk can only be obtained after pre-stimulation.


Corresponding author


Hide All
Ambord, S, Thomas, CS, Borghese, A, Mazzi, M, Boselli, C & Bruckmaier, RM 2009 Teat anatomy, vacuum to open the teat canal, and fractionized milk composition in Italian buffaloes. Milchwissenschaft 64 351353
Bruckmaier, RM & Blum, JW 1992 B-mode ultrasonography of mammary gland of cows, goats and sheep during α- and β-adrenergic agonist and oxytocin administration. Journal of Dairy Research 59 151159
Bruckmaier, RM, Rothenanger, E & Blum, JW 1994 Measurements of mammary gland cistern size and determination of the cisternal milk fraction in dairy cows. Milchwissenschaft 49 543546
Bruckmaier, RM & Blum, JW 1996 Simultaneous recording of oxytocin release, milk ejection and milk flow during milking of dairy cows with and without prestimulation. Journal of Dairy Research 63 201208
Bruckmaier, RM, Paul, G, Mayer, H & Schams, D 1997 Machine milking of Ostfresian and Lacaune dairy sheep: udder anatomy, milk ejection and milking characteristics. Journal of Dairy Research 64 163172
Bruckmaier, RM & Blum, JW 1998 Oxytocin release and milk removal in ruminants. Journal of Dairy Science 81 939949
Bruckmaier, RM 2005 Normal and disturbed milk ejection in dairy cows. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 29 268273
Mayer, H, Schams, D, Worstorff, H & Prokopp, A 1984 Secretion of oxytocin and milk removal as affected by milking cows with and without manual stimulation. Journal of Endocrinology 103 355361
Rovai, M, Caja, G & Such, X 2008 Evaluation of udder cisterns and effects on milk yield of dairy ewes. Journal of Dairy Science 91 46224629
Salama, AA, Caja, G, Such, X, Peris, S, Sorensen, A & Knight, CH 2004 Changes in cisternal udder compartment induced by milking interval in dairy goats milked once or twice daily. Journal of Dairy Science 87 11811187
Stevens, A, Lowe, L & Bancroft, JD 1990 Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques New York, USA: Churchill Livingstone
Thomas, CS 2004 Milking management of dairy buffaloes Doctoral Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala
Thomas, CS, Svennersten-Sjaunja, K, Bhosrekar, MR & Bruckmaier, RM 2004 Mammary cisternal size, cisternal milk and milk ejection in Murrah buffaloes. Journal of Dairy Research 71 162168
Thomas, CS, Bruckmaier, RM, Östensson, K & Svennersten-Sjaunja, K 2005 Effect of different milking routines on milking-related release of the hormones oxytocin, prolactin and cortisol, and on milk yield and milking performance in Murrah buffaloes. Journal of Dairy Research 72 1018
Thomas, CS 2008 Efficient dairy buffalo production Handbook, DeLaval International AB, Tumba, Sweden
Weiss, D, Weinfurtner, M & Bruckmaier, RM 2004 Teat anatomy and its relationship with quarter and udder milk flow characteristics in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 87 32803289
Weiss, D & Bruckmaier, RM 2005 Optimization of individual prestimulation in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 88 137147


Teat anatomy affects requirements for udder preparation in Mediterranean buffaloes

  • Sarah Ambord (a1), Michael H Stoffel (a2) and Rupert M Bruckmaier (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed