Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter

  • Vanessa Rios de Souza (a1), Tassyana Vieira Marques Freire (a1), Carla Gonçalves Saraiva (a1), João de Deus Souza Carneiro (a1), Ana Carla Marques Pinheiro (a1) and Cleiton Antônio Nunes (a1)...

Abstract

Studies indicate a positive association between dietary salt intake and some diseases, which has promoted the tendency to reduce the sodium in foods. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sodium chloride replacements required to promote the same degree of ideal saltiness in butter and to study the sensory profile of sodium chloride and the substitutes using the analysis of Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). Using the magnitude estimation method, it was determined that the potencies of potassium chloride, monosodium glutamate and potassium phosphate relative to the 1% sodium chloride in butter are 83·33, 31·59 and 33·32, respectively. Regarding the sensory profile of the tested salt substitutes, a bitter taste was perceived in the butter with potassium chloride, a sour taste was perceived in the butter with potassium phosphate and sweet and umami tastes were dominant in the butter with monosodium glutamate. Of all the salt substitutes tested calcium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were impractical to use in butter.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*For correspondence; e-mail: vanessardsouza@gmail.com

References

Hide All
Albarracín, W, Sánchez, IC, Grau, R & Barat, JM 2011 Salt in food processing; usage and reduction: a review. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 46 13291336
Albert, A, Salvador, A, Schlich, P & Fiszman, S 2012 Comparison between temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) and key-attribute sensory profiling for evaluating solid food with contrasting textural layers: fish sticks. Food Quality and Preference 24 111118
Aliño, M, Grau, R, Toldrá, F, Blesa, E, Pagán, MJ & Barat, JM 2010 Physicochemical properties and microbiology of dry-cured loins obtained by partial sodium replacement with potassium, calcium and magnesium. Meat Science 85 580588
Al-Otaibi, MM & Wilbey, RA 2006 Effect of chymosin reduction and salt substitution on the properties of white salted cheese. International Dairy Journal 16 903909
Amerine, MA, Pangborn, RM, Roessler, EB 1965 Principles of sensory evaluation of food. New York: Academic Press
Appel, LJ & Anderson, CAM 2010 Compelling evidence for public health action to reduce salt intake. New England Journal of Medicine 362 650652
Armenteros, M, Aristoy, MC, Barat, JM & Toldrá, F 2012 Biochemical and sensory changes in dry-cured ham salted with partial replacements of NaCl by other chloride salts. Meat Science 90 361367
Askar, A, El-Samahy, SK & Tawfik, M 1994 Pasterna and beef bouillon. The effect of substituting KCl and K-lactate for sodium chloride. Fleischwirtschaft 73 289292
Ayyash, MM, Sherkat, F & Shah, NP 2013 Effect of partial NaCl substitution with KCl on the texture profile, microstructure, and sensory properties of low-moisture mozzarella cheese. Journal of Dairy Research 80 713
Brandsma, IReducing sodium 2006 A European perspective attitudes and regulations regarding sodium in foods pose challenges for the food industry. Food Technology 60 2429
Brazil 2011 Ministry of Health. www.saude.gov.br/
Cardoso, JMP, Battochio, JR & Cardello, HMAB 2004 Equi-sweetness and sweetening power of sweetening agents in differents different temperatures of consumption of tea drink soluble in power. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos 24 448452
Cruz, AG, Faria, JAf, Pollonio, MAR, Bolini, HMA, Celeghini, RMS, Granato, D & Shah, N 2011 Cheeses with reduced sodium content: effects on functionality, public health benefits and sensory properties. Trends in food Science and Technology 22 276291
Dahl, LK 1972 Salt and hypertension. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25 231244
Delwiche, JF, Halpern, BP & DeSimone, JA 1999 Anion size of sodium salts and simple taste reaction times. Physiology and Behavior 66 2732
Desmond, E 2006 Reducing salt: a challenge for the meat industry. Meat Science 74 188196
Food & Drugs Administration Press Release 2010 FDA issues statement on IOM sodium report. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm209155.htm
Formaker, BK & Hill, DL 1988 An analysis of residual NaCl taste response after amiloride. American Physiological Society 255 10021007
Gomes, AG, Cruz, AG, Cadena, RS, Caleghini, RMS, Faria, JAF, Bolini, HMA, Pollonio, MAR & Granato, D 2011 Manufacture of low-sodium Minas fresh cheese: Effect of the partial replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride. Journal of Dairy Science 94 27012706
Gou, P, Guerrero, L, Gelabert, J & Arnau, J 1996 Potassium chloride, potassium lactate and glycine as sodium chloride substitutes in fermented sausages and in dry-cured pork loin. Meat Science 42 3748
Grummer, J, Karalus, M, Zhang, K, Vickers, Z & Schoenfuss, TC 2012 Manufacture of reduced-sodium Cheddar-style cheese with mineral salt replacers. Journal of Dairy Science 95 28303839
Guàrdia, MD, Guerrero, L, Gou, P & Arnau, J 2006 Consumer attitude towards sodium reduction in meat products and acceptability of fermented sausages with reduced sodium content. Meat Science 73 484490
Guàrdia, MD, Guerrero, L, Gelabert, J, Gou, P & Arnau, J 2008 Sensory characterisation and consumer acceptability of small calibre fermented sausages with 50% substitution of NaCl by mixtures of KCl and potassium lactate. Meat Science 80 12251230
Guinee, TP & O'Kennedy, BT 2007 Mechanisms of taste perception and physiological controls. In Reducing Salt in Foods: Practical Strategies, pp. 246287 (Eds Guinee, TP & O'Kennedy, BT). Boca Raton, LA, USA: CRC Press
Guo, L, Hekken, DLV, Tomasula, PM, Shieh, J & Tunic, MH 2011 Effect of salt on the chemical, functional, and rheological properties of Queso Fresco during storage. International Dairy Journal 21 352357
Horita, CN, Morgano, MA, Celeghini, RMS & Pollonio, MAR 2011 Physico-chemical and sensory properties of reduced-fat mortadella prepared with blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride as partial substitutes for sodium chloride. Meat Science 89 426433
Katsiari, MC, Alichannidis, E, Voutsinas, LP & Roussis, IG 2001 Proteolysis in reduced sodium Kefalogravieira cheese made by partial replacement of NaCl with KCl. Food Chemistry 73 3143
Kremer, S, Mojet, J & Shimojo, R 2009 Salt reduction in foods using naturally brewed soy sauce. Journal of Food Science 74 S255S262
Labbe, D, Schlich, P, Pineau, N, Gilbert, F & Martin, N 2009 Temporal dominance of sensations and sensory profiling: a comparative study. Food Quality and Preference 20 216221
Law, MR 1997 Epidemiologic evidence on salt and blood pressure. American Journal of Hypertension 10 42S45S
Macfie, HJ, Bratchell, N, Greenhoff, K & Vallis, LV 1989 Designs to balance the effect of order of presentation and first-order carry-over effects in hall tests. Journal of Sensory Studies 4 129148
Marcellini, PS, Chainho, TF & Bolini, HMA 2005 Ideal sweetness and acceptance analysis of pineapple juice concentrate reconstituted sweetened with sucrose and different sweeteners. Food Nutrition 16 177182
Mattes, RD 2001 The taste of fat elevates postprandial triacylglycerol. Physiological Behavior 74 343348
Matthews, K & Strong, M 2005 Salt – its role in meat products and the industry's action plan to reduce it British. Nutrition Foundation Nutrition Bulletin 30 5561
Mccaughy, S 2007 Mechanisms of taste perception and physiological controls. In Reducing Salt in Foods: Practical Strategies, pp. 7798 (Eds Guinee, TP & O'Kennedy, BT). Boca Raton, LA, USA: CRC Press
Meilgaard, M, Civille, GV & Carr, BT 1999 Sensory Evaluation Techniques, p. 390, 3rd edition. Boca Raton: CRC
Mooster, G 1980 Membrane transitions in taste receptor cell activation by sodium salts. In Biological and Behavioural Aspects of Salt Intake, pp. 275287 (Eds Kare, MR, Fregly, MJ & Bernard, RA). New York: Academic Press Inc
Moskowitz, HR 1970 Ratio scales of sugar sweetness. Perception and Psychophysics 7 315320
Nunes, CA & Pinheiro, ACM 2012 SensoMaker, version 1.0. UFLA, Lavras, 2012
Pineau, N, Cordelle, S, Imbert, A, Rogeaux, M & Schlich, P 2003 Dominance temporelle des sensations. Codage et analyse d'un nouveau type de données sensorielles. In XXXVèmes Journées de Statistiques, pp. 777780Lyon
Pineau, N, Schlich, P, Cordelle, S, Mathonnière, C, Issanchou, S, Imbert, A, Rogeaux, M, Etiévant, P & Koster, E 2009 Temporal dominance of sensations: construction of the TDS curves and comparison with time-intensity. Food Quality and Preference 20 450455
Reps, A, Wisniewska, K & Kuzmicka, M 2009 Possibilities of increasing the potassium content of processed cheese spread. Milchwissenschaft 64 176179
Romero de Ávila, MD, Ordóñez, JA, de la Hoza, L, Herrero, AM & Cambero, MI 2010 Microbial transglutaminase for cold-set binding of unsalted/salted pork models and restructured dry ham. Meat Science 84 747754
Rulikowska, A, Kilcawley, KN, Doolan, IA, Alonso-Gomez, M, Nongonierma, AB, Hannon, JA & Wilkinson, MG 2013 The impact of reduced sodium chloride content on Cheddar cheese quality. International Dairy Journal, 28 4555
Ruusunen, M & Puolanne, E 2005 Reducing sodium intake from meat products. Meat Science 70 531541
SACN 2003 Salt and health. Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. Norwich, UK: The Stationary Office
Seman, DL, Olson, DG & Mandigo, RW 1980 Effect of reduction and partial replacement of sodium on bologna characteristics and acceptability. Journal of Food Science 45 11161121
Souza, VR, Pinheiro, ACM, Carneiro, JDS, Pinto, SM, Abreu, LR & Menezes, CC 2011 Analysis of various sweeteners in petit Suisse cheese: determination of the ideal and equivalent sweetness. Journal of Sensory Studies 26 339345
Stone, H & Oliver, SM 1969 Measurement of the relative sweetness of selected sweeteners and sweetener mixtures. Journal of Food Science 34 215222
Weinsier, RL 1976 Overview: salt and the development of essential hypertension. Preventive Medicine 5 714
WHO/FAO (World Health Organisation/Food and Agriculture Organisation) 2003 Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. WHO Technical Report Series 916. Geneva, World Health Organisation
[WHO]World Health Organisation. 2007 Reducing salt intake in populations. Report of a WHO Forum and Technical Meeting. Geneva: WHO Document Production Services
Ye, Q, Heck, GL & DeSimone, JA 1991 The anion paradox in sodium taste reception: resolution by voltage-clamp studies. Science 254 726742
Ye, Q, Heck, GL & DeSimone, JA 1993 Voltage dependence of the rat chorda tympani response to Na+ salts: implications for the functional organization of taste receptor cells. Journal of Neurophysiology 70 167178.

Keywords

Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter

  • Vanessa Rios de Souza (a1), Tassyana Vieira Marques Freire (a1), Carla Gonçalves Saraiva (a1), João de Deus Souza Carneiro (a1), Ana Carla Marques Pinheiro (a1) and Cleiton Antônio Nunes (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed