Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Predictive models of lameness in dairy cows achieve high sensitivity and specificity with force measurements in three dimensions

  • Jason Dunthorn (a1) (a2), Robert M Dyer (a3), Nagaraj K Neerchal (a4), Jonathan S McHenry (a4), Parimal G Rajkondawar (a5), Gary Steingraber (a5) and Uri Tasch (a2)...

Abstract

Lameness remains a significant cause of production losses, a growing welfare concern and may be a greater economic burden than clinical mastitis . A growing need for accurate, continuous automated detection systems continues because US prevalence of lameness is 12·5% while individual herds may experience prevalence's of 27·8–50·8%. To that end the first force-plate system restricted to the vertical dimension identified lame cows with 85% specificity and 52% sensitivity . These results lead to the hypothesis that addition of transverse and longitudinal dimensions could improve sensitivity of lameness detection. To address the hypothesis we upgraded the original force plate system to measure ground reaction forces (GRFs) across three directions. GRFs and locomotion scores were generated from randomly selected cows and logistic regression was used to develop a model that characterised relationships of locomotion scores to the GRFs. This preliminary study showed 76 variables across 3 dimensions produced a model with greater than 90% sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). The result was a marked improvement on the 52% sensitivity, and 85% specificity previously observed with the 1 dimensional model  or the 45% sensitivities reported with visual observations. Validation of model accuracy continues with the goal to finalise accurate automated methods of lameness detection.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*For correspondence; e-mail: tasch@umbc.edu

References

Hide All
Alsaaod, M & Buscher, W 2012 Detection of hoof lesions using digital infrared thermography in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 95 735742
Bicalho, RC, Cheong, CH, Cramer, G & Guard, CL 2007 Association between a visual and an automated locomotion score in lactating Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 90 32943300
Bruijnis, MRN, Beerda, B, Hogeveen, H & Stassen, EN 2012 Assessing the welfare impact of foot disorders in dairy cattle by a modeling approach. Animal 6 962970
Chapinal, N, De Passille, AM, Weary, DM, Von Keyserlingk, MAG & Rushen, J 2009 Using gait score, walking speed, and lying behavior to detect hoof lesions in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 92 43654374
Cha, E, Hertl, JA, Bar, D & Grohn, YT 2010 The costs of different types of lameness in dairy cows calculated by dynamic programming. Preventative Veterinary Medicine 97 18
Cha, E, Bar, D, Hertl, JA, Tauer, LW, Bennett, G, Gonzalez, RN, Schukken, YH, Welcome, FL & Grohn, YT 2011 The cost and management of different types of clinical mastitis in dairy cows by dynamic programming. Journal of Dairy Science 94 44764487
Chapinal, N, Rushen, J, de Passille, AM & Wagner, S 2010 Automated methods of detecting lameness and measuring analgesia in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 93 20072013
Clarkson, MJ, Downham, DY, Faull, WB, Hughes, JW, Manson, FJ, Merrit, JB, Murray, RD, Russel, WB, Sutherst, JE & Ward, WR 1996 Incidence and prevalence of lameness in dairy cattle. Veterinary Record 138 563567
Clayton, HM, Schamhardt, HC, Willemen, MA, Lanovaz, JL & Colborne, GR 2000 Kinematics and ground reaction forces in horses with superficial digital flexor tendinitis. American Journal of Veterinary Research 61 191196
Dyer, RM, Neerchal, NK, Tasch, U, Wu, Y, Dyer, P & Rajkondawar, PG 2007 Objective determination of claw pain and its relationship to limb locomotion score in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 90 45924602
Dunthorn, J, Dyer, R, Neerchal, NK & Tasch, U 2012 Developing a High Sensitivity, High Specificity Lameness Detection System for Dairy Cattle; USDA SBIR (2011-00499) Phase I Final Report. N.p
Espejo, LA, Endres, MI & Salfer, JA 2006 Prevalence of lameness in high producing Holstein cows housed in freestall barns in Minnesota. Journal of Dairy Science 89 30523058
Fabian, J, Laven, RA & Way, HR 2014 The prevalence of lameness on New Zealand dairy farms: a comparison of farmer estimate and locomotion scoring. Veterinary Journal 201 3138
Flower, FC, Sanderson, DJ & Weary, DM 2006 Effects of Milking on Dairy Cow Gait. Journal of Dairy Science 89 20842089
Ishihara, A, Reed, SM, Rajala-Schultz, PJ, Robertson, JT & Bertone, AL 2009 Use of kinetic gait analysis for detection, quantification, and differentiation of hind limb lameness and spinal Ataxia in horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 234 644651
Liu, J, Neerchal, NK, Tasch, U, Dyer, RM & Rajkondawar, PG 2009 Enhancing the prediction accuracy of bovine lameness models through transformations of limb movement variables. Journal of Dairy Science 92 25392550
Liu, J, Dyer, RM, Neerchal, NK, Tasch, U & Rajkondawar, PG 2011 Diversity in the magnitude of hind limb unloading occurs with similar forms of lameness in dairy cows. The Journal of Dairy Research 78 168177
Maertens, W, Vangeyte, J, Baert, J, Jantaun, A, Martens, KC, De Campeneere, S, Pluk, A, Opsomer, G, Van Weyenberg, S & Van Nuffel, A 2011 Development of a real time cow gait tracking and analyzing tool to assess lameness using a pressure sensitive walkway: the GAITWISE system. Biosystems Engineering 110 2939
Neveux, S, Weary, DM, Rushen, J, Von Keyserlingk, MAG & De Passillé, AM 2006 Hoof discomfort changes how dairy cattle distribute their body weight. Journal of Dairy Science 89 25032509
Nikkhah, A, Plaizier, JC, Einarson, MS, Berry, RJ, Scott, SL & Kennedy, AD 2005 Infrared thermography and visual examination of hooves of dairy cows in two stages of lactation. Journal of Dairy Science 88 27492753
O'Callaghan, KAO, Cripps, PJ, Downham, DY & Murray, RD 2003 Subjective and objective assessment of pain and discomfort due to lameness in dairy cattle. Animal Welfare 12 605910
Pastell, ME & Kujala, M 2007 A probabilistic neural network model for lameness detection. Journal of Dairy Science 90 22832292
Pastell, M, Hautala, M, Poikalainen, V, Praks, J, Veermae, I, Kujala, M & Ahokas, J 2008 Automatic observation of cow leg health using load sensors. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 62 4853
Pastell, M, Hänninen, L, De Passillé, AM & Rushen, J 2010 Measures of weight distribution of dairy cows to detect lameness and the presence of hoof lesions. Journal of Dairy Science 93 954960
Rajkondawar, PG, Lefcourt, AM, Neerchal, NK, Dyer, RM, Varner, MA, Erez, B & Tasch, U 2002 The development of an objective lameness scoring system for dairy herds: pilot study. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 45 11231125
Rajkondawar, PG, Liu, M, Dyer, RM, Neerchal, NK, Tasch, U, Lefcourt, AM, Erez, B & Varner, MA 2006 Comparison of models to identify lame cows based on gait and lesion scores, and limb movement variables. Journal of Dairy Science 89 42674275
Rushen, J, Pompourcq, E & de Passille, AM 2007 Validation of two measures of lameness in cattle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 106 173177
SAS. 2010 Vers. 9·2. Cary, NC: SAS Institute. Computer software
Scott, GB 1988 Studies of the gait of Friesian Heifer cattle. Veterinary Record 123 245248
Scott, GB 1989 Changes in limb loading with lameness for a number of Friesian cattle. British Veterinary Journal 145 2838
Shearer, JK & van Amstel, SR 2001 Functional and Corrective claw trimming. The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice 17 5372
Shearer, J, Anderson, D, Ayars, W, Belknap, E, Berry, S, Guard, C, Hoblet, K, Hovingh, E, Kirksey, G, Langill, A, Mills, A, Miskimins, D, Osterstock, J, Price, R, Prigel, D, Roussel, A, van Amstel, S, Wallace, R, Wasson, J, Cook, N, Garret, E, Hostetler, DG & Schugel, L 2004 A record-keeping system for capture of lameness and foot-care information in cattle. Bovine Practitioner 38 8392
Sprecher, DJ, Hosteller, DE & Kaneene, JB 1997 A lameness scoring system that uses posture and gait to predict dairy cattle reproductive performance. Theriogenology 47 11791187
Tang, W, Tasch, U, Neerchal, NK, Zhu, L & Yarowsky, P 2009a Measuring early pre-symptomatic changes in locomotion of SOD1-G93A rats – a rodent model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 176 254262
Tang, W, Lovering, RM, Roche, JA, Bloch, RJ, Neerchal, NK & Tasch, U 2009b Gait analysis of locomotory impairment in rats before and after neuromuscular injury. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 181 249256
Tang, W, McDowell, K, Limsam, M, Neerchal, NK, Yarowsky, P & Tasch, U 2010 Locomotion analysis of Sprague–Dawley rats before and after injecting 6-OHDA. Behavioural Brain Research 210 131133
Tang, W, Yarowsky, P & Tasch, U 2012 Detecting ALS and Parkinson's disease in rats through locomotion analysis. Network Modeling Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics 1 6368
Tasch, U 2009 Diagnosis System and Method. US Patent Pending Application. Submitted July 6, 2009
USDA 2008, Dairy 2007, Part III. Reference for Dairy Cattle Health and Management Practices in the United States, 2007USDA-APHIS-VS, CEAH, Fort Collins, Co. #N482·0908.p136
van der Tol, PP, Metz, JH, Noordhuizen-Stassen, EN, Back, W, Braam, CR & Weijs, WA 2003 The vertical ground reaction force and the pressure distribution on the claws of dairy cows while walking on a flat substrate. Journal of Dairy Science 86 28752883
von Keyserlingk, MAG, Barrientos, A, Ito, K, Galo, E & Weary, DM 2012 Benchmarking cow comfort on North American freestall dairies: lameness, leg injuries, lying time, facility design, and management for high-producing Holstein dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 95 73997408
Walker, AM, Pfau, T, Channon, A & Wilson, A 2010 Assessment of dairy cow locomotion in a commercial farm setting: the effects of walking speed on ground reaction forces and temporal and linear stride characteristics. Research in Veterinary Science 88 179187

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Predictive models of lameness in dairy cows achieve high sensitivity and specificity with force measurements in three dimensions

  • Jason Dunthorn (a1) (a2), Robert M Dyer (a3), Nagaraj K Neerchal (a4), Jonathan S McHenry (a4), Parimal G Rajkondawar (a5), Gary Steingraber (a5) and Uri Tasch (a2)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.