Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Aetiology of disturbed milk ejection in parturient primiparous cows*

  • Rupert M. Bruckmaier (a1), Dieter Schams (a2) and Jürg W. Blum (a1)

Summary

Milk flow in nine primiparous cows with disturbed milk ejection (D) and in six corresponding control animals (C) with normal milk removal was recorded during machine milking and blood samples were taken before and during milking to determine plasma oxytocin, vasopressin. prolactin, cortisol, oestradiol-17β, luteinizing hormone, progesterone and β-endorphin concentrations. Manual teat stimulation before milking lasted for 1 min. After milk flow had stopped, air was blown into the vagina for 2 min. When milk flow had stopped again, 1 i.u. oxytocin and finally 10 i.u. oxytocin were injected to remove residual milk. During and after teat stimulation, oxytocin remained basal in D, but increased in C, whereas prolactin increased in both groups. While 94% of total milk was obtained in C during this period, only 9% could be removed from D, indicating lack of alveolar milk ejection. During vaginal stimulation, oxytocin increased transiently in D and more than by teat stimulation in C. This allowed the removal of 75% of milk in D, whereas almost no more milk was available in C. After oxytocin injections, 3 and 16% of residual milk were obtained in C and D respectively. Basal oestradiol-17β concentration was higher in D than in C (11·6 and 2·0 ng/1 respectively), whereas β-endorphin level was lower (24·1 and 86·6 μg/1 respectively). Basal concentration of luteinizing hormone and progesterone, and concentration of cortisol and vasopressin before and during milking were comparable in C and D. We conclude that in cows with disturbed milk ejection afferent nervous pathways to the hypothalamus were intact, because prolactin was released by teat stimulation. However, oxytocin was only released by vaginal stimulation, i.e. milk ejection was centrally inhibited during teat stimulation.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Aulsebrook, L. H. & Holland, R. C. 1969 Central inhibition of oxytocin release. American Journal of Physiology 216 830842
Barb, C. R., Kraeling, R. R. & Rampacek, G. B. 1991 Opioid modulation of gonadotropin and prolactin secretion in domestic farm animals. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 8 1527
Blum, J. W., Jans, F., Moses, W., Fr¨hli, D., Zemp, M., Wanner, M., Hart, I. C., Thun, R. & Keller, U. 1985 Twentyfour-hour pattern of blood hormone and metabolite concentrations in high-yielding dairy cows: effects of feeding low or high amounts of starch, or crystalline fat. Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin A 32, 401418
Blum, J. W., Schams, D. & Bruckmaier, R. 1989 Catecholamines, oxytocin and milk removal in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Research 56 167177
Bruckmaier, R. M. & Blum, J. W. 1992 B-mode-ultrasonography of mammary glands of cows, goats and sheep during α- and β-adrenergic agonist and oxytocin administration. Journal of Dairy Research 59 151159
Bruckmaier, R., Mayer, H. & Schams, D. 1991 Effects of α- and β-adrenergic agonists on intramammary pressure and milk flow in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Research 58 411419
Clarke, G., Wood, P., Merrick, L. & Lincoln, D. W. 1979 Opiate inhibition of peptide release from the neurohumoral terminals of hypothalamic neurones. Nature 282 746748
Dufy-Barbe, L. 1985 Hypothalamic hormones. Endeavour 9 4251
Gorewit, R. C. 1978 Effect of epinephrine hydrochloride on oxytocin release and milk yield in lactating cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 61 Suppl. 1 148
Gorewit, R. C. & Aromando, M. C. 1985 Mechanisms involved in the adrenalin-induced blockade of milk ejection in dairy cattle. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 180 340347
Gorewit, R. C. & Gassman, K. B. 1985 Effects of duration of udder stimulation on milking dynamics and oxytocin release. Journal of Dairy Science 68 18131818
Haldar, J. & Bade, V. 1981 Involvement of opioid peptides in the inhibition of oxytocin release by heat stress in lactating mice. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 168 1014
Haldar, J. & Sawykr, W. H. 1978 Inhibition of oxytocin release by morphine and its analogs. Proceed ings of the Society for Experimental Biology and-Medicine 157 476480
Koprowski, J. A. & Tucker, H. A. 1973 Bovine serum growth hormone, corticoids and insulin during lactation. Endocrinology 93 645651
Lefcourt, A. M. & Akers, R. M. 1982 Endocrine responses of cows subjected to controlled voltages during milking. Journal of Dairy Science 65 21252130
Lefcourt, A. M. & Akers, R. M. 1984 Small increases in peripheral noradrenalin inhibit the milk-ejection response by means of a peripheral mechanism. Journal of Endocrinology 100 337344
Lefcourt, A. M. & Akers, R. M. 1991 Teat stimulation-induced oxytocin and catecholamine release in pregnant and lactating Holstein heifers. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 8 235243
Lincoln, D. W. & Paisley, A. C. 1982 Neuroendocrine control of milk ejection. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 65 571586
Mayer, H., Bruckmaier, R. & Schams, D. 1991 Lactational changes in oxytocin release, intramammary pressure and milking characteristics in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Research 58 159169
Mielke, H. 1981 [Recent results from studies on inhibited milk ejection.] Monatshefte für Veterin¨rmedizin 36, 525530
Mielke, H. & Brabant, W. 1963 [Permanent disorder of normal unconditioned milk eject ion reflex in lactating cows. 1 and 2.] Monatshefte für Veterinärmedizin 18 451457, 493499
Mutayoba, B. M., Meyer, H. H. D., Schams, D. & Schallenberger, E. 1990 Development of a sensitive enzyme immunoassay for LH determination in bovine plasma using the streptavidin-biotin technique. Acta Endocrinologica 122 227232
Myers, T. R., Myers, D. A., Gregg, D. W. & Moss, G. E. 1989 Endogenous opioid suppression of release of luteinizing hormone during suckling in postpartum anestrous beef cows. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 6 183190
Pope, G. S. 1982 Oestrogens and progesterone in plasma and milk of post-partum dairy cattle. In Factors Influencing Fertility in the Postpartum Cow. pp. 248276 (Eds Karg, H. and Schallenbcrger, E.). The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff (Current Topics in Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science 20)
Prakash, B. S., Meyer, H. H. D., Schallenberger, E. & Van De Wiel, D. F. M. 1987 Development of a sensitive enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) for progesterone determination in unextractcd bovine plasma using the second antibody technique. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 28 623627
Reinhardt, V. & Schams, D. 1974 Analysis of teat stimulation as specific stimulus for prolactin in eattle. Neuroendocrinology 14 289296
Sagi, R., Gorewit, R. C., Merrill, W. G. & Wilson, D. B. 1980 Premilking stimulation effects on milking performance and oxytocin and prolactin release in cows. Journal of Dairy Science 63 800806
SAS, 1987 SAS Users' Guide: Statistics Cary, NC: SAS Institute
Schallenberger, E., Schöndorfer, A. M. & Walters, D. L. 1985 Gonadotrophins and ovarian steroids in cattle. I. Pulsatile changes of concentrations in the jugular vein throughout the oestrus cycle. Acta Endocrinologica 108 312321
Schallenberger, E. & Walters, D. L. 1985 Endocrine mechanisms contributing to postpartum anoestrus in dairy and beef cattle. In Endocrine Causes of Seasonal and Lactational Anestrus in farm Animals (Eds Ellendorf, E. and Elsaesser, F.). Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff
Schams, D. 1983 Oxytocin determination by radioimmunoassay. III. Improvement to subpicogram sensitivity and application to blood levels in cyclic cattle. Acta Endocrinologica 103 180183
Schams, D., Baumann, G. & Leidl, W. 1982 Oxytocin determination by radioimmunoassay in cattle. 11. Effect of mating and stimulation of the genital tract in bulls, cows and heifers. Acta Endocrinologica 99 218223
Schams, D., Mayer, H., Prokopp, A. & Worstorff, H. 1984 Oxytocin secretion during milking in dairy cows with regard to the variation and importance of a threshold level for milk removal. Journal of Endocrinology 102 337343
Schams, D. & Reinhardt, V. 1974 Influence of the season on plasma prolactin level in cattle from birth to maturity. Hormone Research 5 217226
Schulz, J. & Brabant, W. 1970 [Disorders of the unconditioned milk-ejection reflex in cows.] Monatshefte für Veterinärmedizin 25, 5758
Tindal, J. S. & Blake, L. A. 1986 Central inhibition of oxytocin release in the rabbit: role of the midbrain. Journal of Endocrinology 109 405409
Wright, D. M. 1985 Evidence for a spinal site at which opioids may act to inhibit the milk-ejection reflex. Journal of Endocrinology 106 401407

Aetiology of disturbed milk ejection in parturient primiparous cows*

  • Rupert M. Bruckmaier (a1), Dieter Schams (a2) and Jürg W. Blum (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed