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Quality and antioxidant potential of goat's milk paneer prepared from different citrus juices and its whey

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 April 2024

Tahir Mahmood Qureshi
Department of Food Sciences, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
Muhammad Mobeen Saeed
Department of Food Sciences, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
Muhammad Nadeem
Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan
Ghulam Muhammad
Department of Food Sciences, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
Mian Anjum Murtaza
Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan
Salam A. Ibrahim*
Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State and University, Greensboro, NC, USA
Corresponding author: Salam A. Ibrahim; Email:


The experiments reported in this research paper aimed to evaluate the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics, microbial quality and antioxidant potential of goat's milk paneer during storage (0–12 d, 4 ± 1°C). The juices from five different citrus fruits were used as coagulant (treatments) to make goat's milk paneer. The pH of all paneer samples decreased during storage whereas titratable acidity increased. Ash (%) fat (%) and protein (%) of paneer increased slightly during storage, whereas sensory perception decreased. The juices from all the citrus fruit varieties showed high contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids which ultimately influenced ferric reducing antioxidant power, total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging activities. As the contents of different juices were also retained in the paneer matrix, so paneer coagulated with citrus juices also showed encouraging results in terms of total phenolic and flavonoid contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power and radical scavenging activities. Amongst all the paneers, the most promising was that coagulated by kinnow juice. In addition, the whey obtained from paneer coagulated by citrus juices also showed appreciable quantities of total phenolic and flavonoid contents, thereby beneficially influencing ferric reducing antioxidant power andradical scavenging activities. It is concluded that citrus juices improve the sensorial quality and antioxidant potential of goat's milk paneer and its whey.

Research Article
Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of Hannah Dairy Research Foundation

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