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A Different Trajectory: Market-Consciousness in Chinese Political Economy, 800–1800

  • Helen Dunstan (a1)

Abstract

This article engages critically with William Rowe's notion of an “alternative economic discourse” linking the market-consciousness shown in some aspects of Dong Wei's approach to famine relief in the Song dynasty to that which informed many subsistence-policy discussions and some aspects of bureaucratic practice during the high Qing. The longevity of the discursive tradition is shown to be understated if we start with Dong Wei, but it is also taken as an interpretative challenge. Comparison with the case of ancien régime France is used to suggest an alternative conceptualization that enables us to differentiate between (1) a mainstream tradition of conventionally accepted market-conscious prescriptions that were not perceived as challenging Confucian moralism, and (2) avant-garde departures. A review of the arguments used down the centuries to justify distributing famine relief in monetary form is used to pinpoint one such departure and to reflect on its significance in a multi-century perspective.

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Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. Email: helen.dunstan@sydney.edu.au.

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1 Mervart, David, “A Forgotten Landscape of the Forms of Government: The Case for the Counterfactual History of Political Theory,” in The Dynamics of Transculturality: Concepts and Institutions in Motion, edited by Flüchter, Antje and Schöttli, Jivanta (Cham: Springer, 2015), 99101.

2 Hymes, Robert P., “Moral Duty and Self-Regulating Process in Southern Sung Views of Famine Relief,” in Ordering the World: Approaches to State and Society in Sung Dynasty China, edited by Hymes, Robert P. and Schirokauer, Conrad (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), 280309; Dunstan, Helen, State or Merchant? Political Economy and Political Process in 1740s China (Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2006), 179–87, 233–41, 343–44. Aspects of my work on economic liberalism in high-Qing subsistence policy were anticipated in Will, Pierre-Étienne, Bureaucratie et famine en Chine au 18e siècle (Paris: Mouton Éditeur, 1980), trans. Forster, Elborg as Bureaucracy and Famine in Eighteenth-Century China (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1990), chap. 9, and Mio, Kishimoto 岸本美緒, “Shinchō chūki keizai seisaku no kichō—1740 nendai no shokuryō mondai o chūshin ni” 淸朝中期経済政策の基調—1740 年代の食糧問題を中心に [The tone of mid-Qing economic policy as seen in the 1740s food grain crisis], in Chikaki ni arite—Kin-Gendai Chūgoku o meguru tōron no hiroba [Being nearby: discussions on modern China] 11 (1987), 1735, or revised version in Mio, Kishimoto, Shindai Chūgoku no bukka to keizai hendō 清代中国の物価と経済変動 [Prices and economic change in Qing China] (Tokyo: Kenbun shuppan, 1997), 289325.

3 Dunstan, State or Merchant?, 91–92, 104; Dunstan, Helen, Conflicting Counsels to Confuse the Age: A Documentary Study of Political Economy in Qing China, 1644–1840 (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan, Center for Chinese Studies, 1996), 331–32.

4 Rowe, William T., Saving the World: Chen Hongmou and Elite Consciousness in Eighteenth-Century China (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001), 184.

5 The recently reprinted 1529 version of a 1443 augmented edition of Dong's work took its place among other versions/imitations dated ca. 1330, 1473, 1520, and 1642. See the generally unpaginated front matter to the punctuated, typeset edition of the 1529 version in Zhongguo huangzheng quanshu 中國荒政全書, edited by Li Wenhai 李文海 and Xia Mingfang 夏明方 (Beijing: Beijing guji chubanshe, 2003), vol. 1, 1–145, and Pierre-Étienne Will, “Official Handbooks and Anthologies of Imperial China: A Descriptive and Critical Bibliography” (unpublished manuscript, 2012), entries 659, 660.

6 Helen Dunstan, “Political Economy,” in The Cambridge Economic History of China, vol. 1, edited by Richard von Glahn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, forthcoming).

7 Elvin, Mark, The Pattern of the Chinese Past: a Social and Economic Interpretation (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1973), 166. For a useful survey of the economic aspects of the Tang-Song transition, see von Glahn, Richard, The Economic History of China from Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016), chap. 6.

8 Rowe, Saving the World, 185.

9 Rowe, Saving the World, 183–84, 200–201.

10 Rowe, Saving the World, 185; see also 201.

11 Rowe, Saving the World, 183.

12 See Hymes, “Moral Duty,” 295–96, for the phrase “self-regulating process” and Hymes's translations of two key passages.

13 Wei, Dong, Jiuhuang huomin shu (ca. 1205. in Qinding Siku quanshu 欽定四庫全書, 1781, reprint, Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 1987, hereafter SKQS, vol. 662), 2.1b.

14 Gu, Ban, Hanshu [The history of Han] (96 CE. Reprint, Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1962), vol. 4, 24A.1125.

15 Feibai, Ma 馬非百, Guanzi Qingzhong pian xinquan [A new exegesis of the “Light and heavy” chapter of the Guanzi] 管子輕重篇新詮 (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1979), vol. 1, 225–41; Tao, Li 李燾, Xu “Zizhi tongjian” changbian 續資治通鑑長編 (1183. Reprint, Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1979–95), vol. 17, 231.5622; Smith, Paul Jakov, “Shen-tsung's Reign and the New Policies of Wang An-shih, 1067–1085,” in Cambridge History of China, vol. 5, pt. 1: The Sung Dynasty and its Precursors, 907–1279, edited by Twitchett, Denis and Smith, Paul Jakov (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 403–7, 429–33, 443–45; cf. Twitchett, Denis, “Merchant, Trade and Government in Late T'ang,” Asia Major 14 (1968), 7273.

16 Kaplan, Steven L., Bread, Politics and Political Economy in the Reign of Louis XV (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1976), 5358.

17 Kaplan, Bread, Politics and Political Economy, 62–63.

18 Dunstan, Conflicting Counsels, 268 (translated from document of 1752).

19 Will, Bureaucracy and Famine, 212–16; Dunstan, Conflicting Counsels, 248–50, 271–73; Kaplan, Bread, Politics and Political Economy, 27, 65. For examples of Song and Ming rejection of edi, see Song, Xu 徐松, comp., Song huiyao jigao 宋會要輯稿 (1809. 1st ed., Beijing: Dadong shuju, 1936; digitized, critical version, edited by Wang Deyi 王德毅, 2003, in Zhongyang Yanjiuyuan, Lishi Yuyan Yanjiusuo 中央研究院, 歷史語言研究所, Hanji dianzi wenxian ziliaoku 漢籍電子文獻資料庫), “Xingfa” 2, “Jinyue” 2, 102 (1131), “Jinyue” 3, 126 (1194); Li Xinchuan 李心傳, Jianyan yilai xinian yaolu 建炎以來繫年要錄 [Essential annals for the years from Jianyan on] (ca. 1200; first published 1253. In SKQS, vol. 327), 127 (152.23a) (1144); Li Jinhua 李晉華 et al. ed., Ming shilu 明實錄 [The Ming veritable records] (facsimile reprint, Taibei: Zhongyang Yanjiuyuan, 1962–68), Yingzong 249.6a (1455); Shizong 34.7b (1524); Shenzong 197.5a–b (1588); Xizong 80.6b–7a (1627).

20 Li Huarui 李華瑞, “Quanfen yu Songdai jiuhuang” 勸分與宋代救荒, Zhongguo jingji shi yanjiu 中國經濟史研究 2010.1, 57–60. Cf. Hymes, “Moral Duty,” 280–81, 297–99, 302–7; Dunstan, State or Merchant?, 76–84.

21 Dunstan, State or Merchant?, 2, 41–54.

22 Miller, Judith A., Mastering the Market: The State and the Grain Trade in Northern France, 1700–1860 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 5671.

23 Miller, Mastering the Market, 61–62; Dunstan, Conflicting Counsels, 31–32; Song huiyao jigao, “Shihuo” 68, “Zhendai” 2, 99 (1195); Will, Bureaucracy and Famine, 134–35, 186–87, 277–79.

24 Kaplan, Bread, Politics and Political Economy, chaps. 1 and 2, esp. 63–86.

25 For a detailed account, see Dunstan, State or Merchant?, 31–38.

26 Kaplan, Bread, Politics and Political Economy, 66–67, 69.

27 Rowe, Saving the World, 178–79.

28 Chen Hongmou, Peiyuan Tang oucun gao: wenxi 培遠堂偶存稿: 文檄 [Chance survivals from the Peiyuan Hall: directives], edited by Chen Zhongke 陳鍾珂 and Chen Lansen 陳蘭森 (n.d.), 26.2b.

29 Chen Hongmou, Peiyuan, 27.16a, 17a–b; see Dunstan, Conflicting Counsels, 251–53, 264–67, esp. 266 for a less exact translation.

30 Memorial of 1736 by Wenxuan, Wang 王文璿, excerpted in Huang, Ji 嵇璜 et al. , comps., Qingchao wenxian tongkao 清朝文獻通考 (reprint of the 1936 Shitong edition; Taibei: Xinxing shuju, 1965), vol. 1, 27.5085; Bao, Fang 方苞, “Qing chu guan ji mishang yinzhao zhazi” 請除官給米商印照劄子, in Fang Bao ji 方苞集 (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 1983), vol. 2, 554; Qinding Da Qing huidian shili 欽定大清會典事例 (reprint of the 1899 edition; Taibei: Xin Wenfeng chuban gongsi, 1976), 288.3a (vol. 11, 8938). The last of these citations replaces the similar ones erroneously provided in Masanori, Kōsaka 香坂昌纪, “Kenryū-dai zenki ni okeru kanzei shukoku-zei menjo-rei ni tsuite” 乾隆代前期における関税主穀税免除例について, Bunka 文化 32, no. 4 (1969), 52 and Dunstan, Conflicting Counsels, 305.

31 Da Qing Gaozong Chun (Qianlong) Huangdi shilu 大清高宗純(乾隆)皇帝實錄 (hereafter QSL/QL) (1807. Reprint, Taibei: Huawen shuju, 1970), 73.4a–b (quoted in Kōsaka, “Kenryū-dai,” 51); cf. Dunstan, Conflicting Counsels, 170–72, 196–99 (translation).

32 QSL/QL, 77.5a–b.

33 Fang, “Qing chu guan ji mishang yinzhao zhazi,” 554; Dunstan, Conflicting Counsels, 325 (translation). On Fang's other interventions in the realm of policy, see Guy, R. Kent, “Fang Pao and the Ch'in-ting Ssu-shu-wen,” in Education and Society in Late Imperial China, 1600–1900, edited by Elman, Benjamin A. and Woodside, Alexander (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994), 157–58; Dunstan, Conflicting Counsels, chap. 5, esp. 221–24 (translation).

34 Hymes, “Moral Duty,” 298–300.

35 Hymes, “Moral Duty,” 302; Will, Pierre-Étienne, “Discussions about the Market-Place and the Market Principle in Eighteenth-Century Guangdong,” in Zhongguo haiyang fazhan shi lunwen ji 中國海洋發展史論文集, edited by Tang Xiyong 湯熙勇, vol. 7 (Taibei: Academia Sinica, Sun Yat-sen Institute of Humanities and Social Sciences, 1999), 356.

36 See discussion in Dunstan, “Political Economy,” forthcoming.

37 Zeng, Wu 吳曾, Nenggai Zhai manlu 能改齋漫錄 (1157. Reprint, Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 1979), 3.20; cf. Dong, Jiuhuang huomin shu, 2.16a.

38 Wu, Nenggai Zhai manlu, 3.20.

39 Guang, Sima, Zizhi tongjian (1086. Reprint, Beijing: Guji chubanshe, 1956), 237.7653, quoted in Zhenhua, Yao 幺振華, Tangdai ziran zaihai ji qi shehui yingdui 唐代自然災害及其社會應對 (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 2014), 320.

40 Ao, Li, “Gu Dongchuan jiedu shi Lu gong zhuan” 故東川節度使盧公傳, in Wenyuan yinghua 文苑英華, comp. Li Fang 李昉 et al. (987. Reprint, Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1966), 792.4189; also (with minor textual variants) in Xu Song 徐松 et al., comps., Quan Tang wen 全唐文 (1814. Reprint, Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1983), 640.4b–5a (vol. 7, 6464). The passage is quoted in full in Hailun, Deng 邓海伦 (Helen Dunstan), “Ganyu yihuo ting qi ziran: nan Song he sheng Qing huangzheng de shichang yishi qingxiang” 干预抑或听其自然: 南宋和盛清荒政的市场意识倾向, Zaihai yu lishi 灾害与历史 1 (2018), 8687.

41 Sima, Zizhi tongjian, 237.7653, commentary; Xie Weixin 謝維新, comp., Gujin hebi shilei beiyao 古今合璧事類備要 (1257. In SKQS, vol. 939), 175 (20.15b).

42 Wu, Nenggai Zhai manlu, 3.20–21, and, for the text there omitted from the Lu Tan story, “Tuowen,” 2.3 in the “Shiyi” supplement appended to the Congshu jicheng edition of Wu's book.

43 Dong, Jiuhuang huomin shu, 2.1a.

44 Dong, Jiuhuang huomin shu, “Shiyi,” 5b–6a; Lin Xiyuan 林希元, Huangzheng congyan 荒政叢言 (16th cent., reproduced as juan 2 of Huangzheng congshu 荒政叢書, comp. Yu Sen 俞森, 1690. Reprint, Siku quanshu zhenben 四庫全書珍本 Series 10, Taibei: Shangwu yinshuguan, 1980, vol. 106), 24b–25a. On Lin's treatise, see Zhiyuan, Zhou 周致远, Mingdai huangzheng wenxian yanjiu 明代荒政文献研究 (Hefei: Anhui Daxue chubanshe, 2007), 38–40, 102–6.

45 Anon., Zhenghuang shilüe 拯荒事略 (n.d. Reprint, Zhongguo huangzheng quanshu), vol. 1, 152; Yang Yu 楊昱, Mu jian 牧鑑 (prefaces dated 1533, 1555. Reprint, Zhengshu jicheng 政書集成, comp. Chen Shengxi 陳生璽 (Zhengzhou: Zhongzhou guji chubanshe, 1996), vol. 6, 93.

46 Chen Hongmou, Congzheng yigui, in id., Wuzhong yigui 五種遺規 (Sibu beiyao edition. Shanghai: Zhonghua shuju, ca. 1930), 1.60b, 2.26b; cf. Rowe, Saving the World, 176 for a translation that neutralizes the spice of the story.

47 Duanlin, Ma 馬端臨, Wenxian tongkao (ca. 1323. Reprint, Shanghai: Shangwu yinshu guan, 1936), vol. 1, 26. 255.

48 Xi, Zhu, Sanchao mingchen yanxing lu (Sibu congkan reproduction of Song edition. Shanghai: Shangwu yinshuguan, 1922), 5(2).8b. Other Southern Song appearances of the tale include Yuangang, Li 李元綱 (fl. 1165), Houde lu 厚德錄, in Baichuan xue hai 百川學海, comp. Zuo Gui 左圭 (1273. Reprint, Beijing: Zhongguo shudian, 1990, series 2), 1.6a (104), and Xie, comp., Gujin, in SKQS, vol. 939, 176 (20.16b).

49 Guang, Sima, Sushui jiwen (ca. 1180. Reprint, ed. Guangming, Deng 鄧廣銘 and Xiqing, Zhang 張希清, Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1989), 285, and Deng's introduction, 1–2.

50 Shoudao, Ouyang, “Yu Wang Jizhou lun junzheng shu” 與王吉州論郡政書, in Xunzhai wenji 巽齋文集 (n.d.; in Siku quanshu zhenben Series 2, Taibei: Shangwu yinshuguan, 1971, vol. 312), 4.5a, quoted in Deyi, Wang 王德毅, Songdai zaihuang de jiuji zhengce 宋代灾荒的救濟政策 (Taibei: Taiwan shangwu yinshuguan, 1970), 158.

51 Zhu, Sanchao mingchen yanxing lu, 5(2).8a–b; Gong, Zeng 曾鞏, “Yuezhou Zhao gong jiu zai ji” 越州趙公救菑記, in id., Nanfeng xiansheng Yuanfeng leigao 南豐先生元豐類藁 (ca. 1206. Sibu congkan reproduction of Yuan edition, Shanghai: Shangwu yinshuguan, 1929), 19.12a–13b.

52 Dong, Jiuhuang huomin shu, 2.1a.

53 Si, Ni, “Jiuhuang zheng” 救荒政 [Famine relief administration], in Nan Song wenlu lu 南宋文錄錄, comp. Dong Zhaoxiong 董兆熊 (preface dated 1840. Suzhou: Suzhou shuju, 1891), 9.14b (excerpted in Wang Deyi, Songdai zaihuang, 157–58).

54 Twitchett, “Merchant, Trade and Government in Late T'ang,” 76–81. On industrial and commercial aspects of the Tang–Song transition, see McDermott, Joseph P. and Yoshinobu, Shiba, “Economic Change in China, 960–1279,” in The Cambridge History of China, vol. 5: Sung China, 960–1279, pt. 2, edited by Chaffee, John W. and Twitchett, Denis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), 321–25, 368–85, 396–409, 421–30.

55 Kaplan, Bread, Politics and Political Economy, 81–85; cf. Li, “Gu Dongchuan,” 4189.

56 Zhou, Mingdai huangzheng, 125–26, 211–14; Dunstan, State or Merchant?, 96–97, 103–9.

57 Dunstan, State or Merchant?, 140–43.

58 Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, Family and Property in Sung China: Yüan Ts'ai's Precepts for Social Life (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984), 278–81 (translation).

59 Dong, Jiuhuang huomin shu, 2.15a–16a (translation in Hymes, “Moral Duty,” 295–96).

60 Tu Long, Huangzheng kao 荒政考, and Zhou Kongjiao, Huangzheng yi 荒政議, both reproduced in Huangzheng congshu, comp. Yu Sen 俞森 (in Siku quanshu zhenben Series 10, vol. 106), 3.17a–b, 4.15b–16a (both passages quoted in Zhou, Mingdai huangzheng, 211–12).

61 Fang, “Qing chu guan ji mishang yinzhao zhazi,” 554; Dunstan, Conflicting Counsels, 325 (translation).

62 Hymes, “Moral Duty,” 302; Will, “Discussions about the Market-Place,” 353. Cf. Mervart, “Forgotten Landscape,” 101–3 ff.

63 Dunstan, Conflicting Counsels, 306–7.

64 Anning, memorial dated QL 9/2/10 in First Historical Archives (Beijing; hereafter FHA), Zhupi zouzhe 硃批奏摺, Caizheng 財政, Cangchu 倉儲 (hereafter CC); Dunstan, State or Merchant?, 164–65, 171–76, 186–87, 215, 268–69.

65 CC, Kaerjishan, QL 13/6/26 (fragment); Dunstan, State or Merchant?, 97–98, 115–38, 184–86, and, on the targets set in 1738–39 and 1744, 197–206, 245–51; Dunstan, Conflicting Counsels, 85–88, 276–78 (translations).

66 Dunstan, State or Merchant?, 182–83, 344–45, 352–55, 397–98.

67 Dunstan, State or Merchant?, 340–44, 350–52, 406–11; cf. Will, Pierre-Étienne, “Management,” in Nourish the People: The State Civilian Granary System in China, 1650–1850, edited by Will, Pierre-Étienne and Wong, R. Bin (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan, Center for Chinese Studies, 1991), 143–45.

68 Dunstan, State or Merchant?, 235–39.

69 QSL/QL, 55.12a.

70 CC, Li Qingzhi, QL 8/5/3 (emphasis added); translation adapted in part from that in Dunstan, State or Merchant?, 239. For the quotations, cf. Guanzi, sect. 75, “Shan quan shu,” and Zhouli, chap. 2, “Diguan Situ,” “Sishi.”

71 CC, Sun Hao, QL 8 (catalogue number 1125-032).

72 Rowe, Saving the World, 183–84.

73 CC, Wu Wei, QL 8/7/2.

74 Zeng, Nanfeng xiansheng Yuanfeng leigao, 9.15a–16a, 18a.

75 Huarui, Li, Songdai jiuhuang shi gao 宋代救荒史稿 (Tianjin: Tianjin guji chubanshe, 2014), vol. 1, 337–38, vol. 2, 476–98 (chronology of Song relief operations), esp. 481–82, and Dong, Jiuhuang huomin shu, 1.26b.

76 Ma Duanlin, Wenxian tongkao vol. 2, 301.2378 (1183, 1204, 1206); Song huiyao jigao, “Shihuo” 68, “Zhendai” 2, 108 (1215), quoted in Li, Songdai jiuhuang, vol. 2, 497.

77 Song huiyao jigao, “Shihuo” 68, “Zhendai” 2, 84, quoted in Li, Songdai jiuhuang, vol. 2, 493.

78 Dong, Jiuhuang huomin shu, 2.9a–b.

79 Dong, Jiuhuang huomin shu, 1.31a–b; cf. Li Tao, Xu “Zizhi tongjian” changbian, vol. 19, 261.6357.

80 On the subsistence crises of 1073–75, see McDermott and Shiba, “Economic Change in China, 960–1279,” 338–40.

81 See Li Huarui's chronology of Song relief operations (cited in n75 above).

82 Dong Wei, Jiuhuang huomin shu, 2.9b, “Shiyi” supplement, 11a–b, 12b–13a as amended in light of textual variants in Wang Chongqing 王崇慶, Jiuhuang buyi 救荒補遺 (1529; 1869 ed., repr. under the title Jiuhuang huomin shu in Zhongguo huangzheng quanshu, vol. 1), 84, 93, and the “Shiyi” supplement to the Mohai jinhu 墨海金壺 edition of Dong's manual, comp. Zhang Ruoyun 張若雲 (1812. Reprint, Shanghai: Bogu Zhai, 1921, vols. 89–90, online ed., Chinese Text Project), 7b.

83 Pace Rowe, Saving the World, 183–84.

84 Dong, Jiuhuang huomin shu, 2.2b, 31a–b, 3.2a, “Shiyi” supplement, 11b–12a, 13a.

85 Dong, Jiuhuang huomin shu, 2.31b.

86 Dong, Jiuhuang huomin shu, 2.30a, 3.2a.

87 Dong, Jiuhuang huomin shu, 3.45b–46a.

88 Zhou Zhiyuan, Mingdai huangzheng, 173–76; Lin, Huangzheng congyan, 9b–10a.

89 Lin, Huangzheng congyan, 9b–10a.

90 Zhong Huamin 鍾化民, “Jiuhuang tushuo” 救荒圖說 and Anon., “Zhenhuang shishi” 賑荒事實, both in Zhong Zhonghui gong zhen Yu jilüe 鍾忠惠公賑豫紀略 (reproduced as juan 5 of Huangzheng congshu 荒政叢書, comp. Yu Sen 俞森, 1690. Reprinted, Siku quanshu zhenben Series 10, vol. 106), 3b–4a, 5a–b, 15b–16a. On Zhong's actions in Henan see Shui-yuen, Yim, “Famine Relief Statistics as a Guide to the Population of Sixteenth-Century China: A Case-Study of Honan Province,” in Ch'ing-shih wen-t'i 3, no. 9 (1978), 511, and Des Forges, Roger V., Cultural Centrality and Political Change in Chinese History: Northeast Henan in the Fall of the Ming (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003), 4454.

91 Zhou Kongjiao, Huangzheng yi, 9a.

92 Li Jin, memorial of QL 3/6/15 (date of rescript) as quoted in FHA, Zhupi zouzhe, Caizheng, Juanshu 捐輸, Grand Secretaries and Board of Revenue, QL 3/6/27; Dunstan, State or Merchant?, 236.

93 Cf. Sen, Amartya, Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982), 3–4, 78. A definition of “exchange entitlements” is provided on p. 3.

94 CC, Sun Hao, QL 8 (catalogue number 1125-032); translation adapted from that in Dunstan, State or Merchant?, 237. For my 1986 translation of the full list, see Marks, Robert B., Tigers, Rice, Silk, and Silt: Environment and Economy in Late Imperial South China (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 235.

95 Cf. Sen, Poverty and Famines, chap. 1.

96 CC, Sun Hao, QL 8 (catalogue number 1125-032); Dunstan, State or Merchant?, 237–38.

97 CC, Wu Wei, QL 8/7/2 (emphasis added); cf. the partial translation in Dunstan, State or Merchant?, 239.

98 Dunstan, State or Merchant?, 343–44, 406–14; Will, “Management,” 143–45, 147.

99 Dunstan, State or Merchant?, 241–42, and “Heirs of Yu the Great: Flood Relief in 1740s China,” T'oung Pao (International Journal of Chinese Studies) 96 (2010), 519–27; Deng Hailun, “Ganyu,” 105–9.

100 Will, Bureaucracy and Famine, 276–77, 295–97; Wong, R. Bin, “Decline and its Opposition, 1781–1850,” in Nourish the People: The State Civilian Granary System in China, 1650–1850, edited by Will, Pierre-Étienne and Wong, R. Bin (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan, Center for Chinese Studies, 1991), 7586; Li, Lillian M., Fighting Famine in North China: State, Market, and Environmental Decline, 1690s–1990s (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007), 226–27; Perdue, Peter C., China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2005), 548–51.

101 Cf. Sen, Poverty and Famines, 96.

102 CC, Sun Hao, QL 8 (catalogue number 1125-032), Dunstan, State or Merchant?, 240, and for Dunstan's 1986 translation, Marks, Tigers, Rice, Silk, and Silt, 235.

103 Zhong Huamin, “Jiuhuang tushuo,” Anon., “Zhenhuang shishi,” and Yu Sen, untitled editorial introduction, all in Zhong Zhonghui gong zhen Yu jilüe, 1b–2a, 3a, 12b–13a, 16a, 22a–23b; Yim Shui-yuen, “Famine Relief Statistics,” 12–13, 19–22 (tables 1–4); Brook, Timothy, “Telling Famine Stories: The Wanli Emperor and the ‘Henan Famine’ of 1594,” Études Chinoises 34, no. 2 (2015), 180–86.

104 Elvin, The Pattern of the Chinese Past.

105 FHA, Huke hongben 戶科紅本, Cangchu 倉儲, Bundle 94, Bd. Rev., QL 8/6/13; Academia Sinica, Institute of History and Philology, Neige Daku dang'an 內閣大庫檔案, Bd. Rev., QL 8/6/15 (archive copy, doc. no. 098714). References from Dunstan, State or Merchant?, 242.

106 Dong Wei, Jiuhuang huomin shu, 2.16a–b; cf. translation in Hymes, “Moral Duty,” 296.

107 Cf. Rowe, Saving the World, 185, 201.

108 For the classic statement of this view, see Quan Hansheng 全漢昇, “Meizhou baiyin yu shiba shiji Zhongguo wujia geming de guanxi” 美洲白銀與十八世紀中國物價革命的關係 (1956); reprinted in Hansheng, Quan, Zhongguo jingji shi luncong (Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Asia Institute, 1972), 475508; cf., for a more balanced discussion, Yeh-chien, Wang, “Secular Trends of Rice Prices in the Yangzi Delta, 1638–1935,” in Chinese History in Economic Perspective, edited by Rawski, Thomas G. and Li, Lillian M. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992), 5468.

109 Kishimoto Mio, Shindai Chūgoku no bukka, 315–17; cf. Dunstan, State or Merchant?, 92–93.

110 Sen, Poverty and Famines, 45.

111 Kaplan, Bread, Politics and Political Economy, 101–4.

112 Deng Hailun, “Ganyu,” 82–83.

113 Sen, Poverty and Famines, 8.

Keywords

A Different Trajectory: Market-Consciousness in Chinese Political Economy, 800–1800

  • Helen Dunstan (a1)

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