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What genetic research on intelligence tells us about the environment

  • Robert Plomin (a1), Stephen A. Petrill (a1) and Alexandra L. Cutting (a1)


More than a century ago, Francis Galton, the father of behavioural genetics, coined the scientific use of the phrase nature–nurture. He believed that ability, especially individual differences in intelligence, is due primarily to nature rather than nurture, as implied by the title of his earliest and most famous work, Hereditary Genius (1869). In a paper on twins, he declared that ‘there is no escape from the conclusion that nature prevails enormously over nurture’ (1875. p. 404).



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