Skip to main content Accessibility help


  • Md Kamruzzaman (a1), A. S. M. A. Mamun (a1), Sheikh Muhammad Abu Bakar (a2), Aik Saw (a3), T. Kamarul (a3), Md Nurul Islam (a1) and Md Golam Hossain (a1)...


The aim of this study was to investigate the socioeconomic and demographic factors influencing the body mass index (BMI) of non-pregnant married Bangladeshi women of reproductive age. Secondary (Hierarchy) data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, collected using two-stage stratified cluster sampling, were used. Two-level linear regression analysis was performed to remove the cluster effect of the variables. The mean BMI of married non-pregnant Bangladeshi women was 21.60±3.86 kg/m2, and the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity was 22.8%, 14.9% and 3.2%, respectively. After removing the cluster effect, age and age at first marriage were found to be positively (p<0.01) related with BMI. Number of children was negatively related with women’s BMI. Lower BMI was especially found among women from rural areas and poor families, with an uneducated husband, with no television at home and who were currently breast-feeding. Age, total children ever born, age at first marriage, type of residence, education level, level of husband’s education, wealth index, having a television at home and practising breast-feeding were found to be important predictors for the BMI of married Bangladeshi non-pregnant women of reproductive age. This information could be used to identify sections of the Bangladeshi population that require special attention, and to develop more effective strategies to resolve the problem of malnutrition.


Corresponding author

1 Corresponding author. Email:


Hide All
Ali, S. M. & Lindström, M. (2006) Socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioural, and psychological determinants of BMI among young women: differing patterns for underweight and overweight/obesity. European Journal of Public Health 16(3), 325331.
Bharati, S., Pal, M., Bhattacharya, B. N. & Bharati, P. (2007) Prevalence and causes of chronic energy deficiency and obesity in Indian women. Human Biology 79(4), 395412.
Brener, N. D., Eaton, D. K., Lowry, R. & McManus, T. (2004) The association between weight perception and BMI among high school students. Obesity Research 12(11), 18661874.
Chatterjee, S. & Hadi, A. S. (2006) Regression Analysis by Example . John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey.
Cilliers, J., Senekal, M. & Kunneke, E. (2006) The association between the body mass index of first-year female university students and their weight-related perceptions and practices, psychological health, physical activity and other physical health indicators. Public Health Nutrition 9(2), 234243.
Dunn, O. J. & Clark, V. A. (1974) Applied Statistics: Analysis of Variance and Regression. John Wiley & Sons, Toronto.
Gnudi, S., Sitta, E. & Lisi, L. (2009) Relationship of body mass index with main limb fragility fractures in postmenopausal women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 27(4), 479484.
Herrera, H., Rebato, E., Arechabaleta, G., Lagrange, H., Salces, I. & Susanne, C. (2003) Body mass index and energy intake in Venezuelan University students. Nutrition Research 23(3), 389400.
Hosegood, V. & Campbell, O. M. (2003) Body mass index, height, weight, arm circumference, and mortality in rural Bangladeshi women: a 19-y longitudinal study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 77(2), 341347.
Hossain, M. G., Bharati, P., Aik, S., Lestrel, P. E., Abeer, A. & Kamarul, T. (2012) Body mass index of married Bangladeshi women: trends and association with socio-demographic factors. Journal of Biosocial Science 44(4), 385399.
Hossain, M. G., Islam, S., Aik, S., Zaman, T. K. & Lestrel, P. E. (2010) Age at menarche of university students in Bangladesh: secular trends and association with adult anthropometric measures and socio-demographic factors. Journal of Biosocial Science 42(5), 677687.
Hossain, M. G., Kamruzzaman, M., Islam, S., Islam, M. A. & Alam, R. (2012) Association between body mass index and socio-demographic factors of university female students in Bangladesh: observed trends in BMI. South Asian Anthropologist 12(2), 175181.
Hou, Z., Quan, S., Qian, W., Yang, W., Xu, L. & Cao, Y. (2014) Relationship between body mass index and outcome of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer cycle in patients with endometriosis. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 34(3), 379382.
Khan, M. H. R. & Shaw, J. E. H. (2011) Multilevel logistic regression analysis applied to binary contraceptive prevalence data. Journal of Data Science 9, 93110.
Khan, M. M. & Kraemer, A. (2009) Factors associated with being underweight, overweight and obese among ever-married non-pregnant urban women in Bangladesh. Singapore Medical Journal 50(8), 804813.
Lamon-Fava, S., Wilson, P. W. & Schaefer, E. J. (1996) Impact of body mass index on coronary heart disease risk factors in men and women. The Framingham Offspring Study. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 16(12), 15091515.
Mohsena, M., Goto, R. & Mascie-Taylor, C. G. N. (2015) Maternal nutritional status (as measured by height, weight and BMI) in Bangladesh: trends and socio-economic association over the period 1996 to 2007. Public Health Nutrition 19(8), 14381445.
Morin, S., Tsang, J. F. & Leslie, W. D. (2009) Weight and body mass index predict bone mineral density and fractures in women aged 40 to 59 years. Osteoporosis International 20(3), 363370.
Najat, Y., Alice, A., Abbass, A. & Rizk, S. (2008) Eating habits and obesity among Lebanese university students. Nutrition Journal 7, 32.
NIPORT (2009) Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2007. National Institute of Population Research and Training, Mitra and Associates, ICF International, Dhaka, Bangladesh, and Calverton, MD, USA.
NIPORT (2013) Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2011. National Institute of Population Research and Training, Mitra and Associates, ICF International. Dhaka, Bangladesh, and Calverton, MD, USA.
Okoh, M. (2013) Socio-demographic correlates of overweight and obesity among women of reproductive age in Nigeria. African Journal Reproductive Health 17(4), 6676.
Ortega, R. M., Requejo, A. M., Quintas, E., Redondo, M. R., Lopez-Sobaler, M. & Andres, P. (1997) Concern regarding bodyweight and energy balance in a group of female university students from Madrid: differences with respect to body mass index. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 16(3), 244251.
Park, S. & Lake, E. T. (2005) Multilevel modeling of a clustered continuous outcome: nurses’ work hours and burnout. Nursing Research 54(6), 406413.
Pierce, B. L., Kalra, T., Argos, M., Parvez, F., Chen, Y., Islam, T. et al. (2010) A prospective study of body mass index and mortality in Bangladesh. International Journal of Epidemiology 39(4), 10371045.
Pryer, J. A., Rogers, S. & Rahman, A. (2003) Factors affecting nutritional status in female adults in Dhaka slums, Bangladesh. Social Biology 50(3-4), 259269.
Shafique, S., Akhter, N., Stallkamp, G., de Pee, S., Panagides, D. & Bloem, M. W. (2007) Trends of under- and overweight among rural and urban poor women indicate the double burden of malnutrition in Bangladesh. International Journal of Epidemiology 36(2), 449457.
Sundararajan, K., Campbell, M. K., Choi, Y. H. & Sarma, S. (2014) The relationship between diet quality and adult obesity: evidence from Canada. Journal of American College of Nutrition 33(1), 117.
Tavani, A., Negri, E. & La Vecchia, C. (1994) Determinants of body mass index: a study from northern Italy. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 18(7), 497502.
Wilson, P. W., D’Agostino, R. B., Sullivan, L., Parise, H. & Kannel, W. B. (2002) Overweight and obesity as determinants of cardiovascular risk: the Framingham experience. Archives of Internal Medicine 162(16), 18671872.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed