Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

LOW FERTILITY INTENTION IN TEHRAN, IRAN: THE ROLE OF ATTITUDES, NORMS AND PERCEIVED BEHAVIOURAL CONTROL

  • Amir Erfani (a1)

Summary

Persistent low fertility rates are an increasing concern for countries with low fertility like Iran. Informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, this study examined the immediate factors influencing fertility intentions, using data from the 2012 Tehran Survey of Fertility Intentions. The findings show that more than half of young married adults in Tehran intend to have no more children. The multivariate analysis results indicate that individuals who view childbearing as being detrimental to their personal life, feel less normative pressure to have a/another child, and believe their childbearing decision is not contingent on the presence of economic resources required for childbearing, are more likely to want no (more) children or to be unsure rather than to want a/another child. Attitudes and normative pressure are dominant factors influencing the intention to have a first child, while the intention to have a second child is mainly affected by attitudes and perceived constraints. The policy implications of the results are discussed.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Aassve, A. (2003) The impact of economic resources on premarital childbearing and subsequent marriage among young American women. Demography 40(1), 105126.
Ajzen, I. (2005) Attitudes, Personality, and Behavior, (2nd edn). Open University Press, Maidenhead, UK.
Ajzen, I. (2011) Reflections on Morgan and Bachrach’s critique. Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 9, 6369.
Ajzen, I. & Fishbein, M. (1980) Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Prentice Hall, Englewood-Cliffs, NJ.
Ajzen, I. & Koblas, J. (2013) Fertility intentions: an approach based on the theory of planned behavior. Demographic Research 29, 203232.
Ajzen, I. & Madden, T. J. (1986) Prediction of goal directed behavior: attitudes, intentions, and perceived behavioral control. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 22, 453474.
Barber, J. S. (2000) Intergenerational influences on the entry into parenthood: mothers’ preferences for family and nonfamily behavior. Social Forces 79(1), 319348.
Billari, F. C., Philipov, D. & Testa, M. R. (2009) Attitudes, norms and perceived behavioural control: explaining fertility intentions in Bulgaria. European Journal of Population 25(4), 439465.
Buhler, C. & Fratczak, E. (2007) Learning from others and receiving support: the impact of personal networks on fertility intentions in Poland. European Societies 9(3), 359382.
Call, L. L. (2008) Singapore’s falling fertility: exploring the influence of the work–family interface. International Journal of Sociology of the Family 34(1), 91.
East, P. L., Felice, M. E. & Morgan, M. C. (1993) Sisters’ and girlfriends’ sexual and childbearing behavior: effects on early adolescent girls’ sexual outcomes. Journal of Marriage and the Family 55(4), 953963.
Edmonston, B., Lee, S. M. & Zheng Wu, (2010) Fertility intentions in Canada: change or no change? Canadian Studies in Population 37(3–4), 297337.
Erfani, A. (2011) Induced abortion in Tehran, Iran: estimated rates and correlates. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 37(3), 134142.
Erfani, A. (2013) Fertility in Tehran City and Iran: rates, trends and differentials [in Persian]. Population Studies 1(1), 87107.
Erfani, A. (2015a) Tehran Survey of Fertility, 2014: Final Report [in Persian]. National Population Studies and Comprehensive Management Institute, Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology, Tehran, Iran.
Erfani, A. (2015b) Family planning and women’s educational advancement in Iran. Canadian Studies in Population 42(1–2), 3552.
Erfani, A. (2016) Current levels, trends, and correlates of induced abortion in Tehran, Iran: 2009–2014. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health (in press).
Erfani, A. & McQuillan, K. (2008) Rates of induced abortion in Iran: the roles of contraceptive use and religiosity. Studies in Family Planning 39(2), 111122.
Farahani, K. F., Cleland, J. & Mehryar, A. M. (2011) Associations between family factors and premarital heterosexual relationships among female college students in Tehran. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 37(1), 3039.
Hagewen, K. J. & Morgan, P. (2005) Intended and ideal family size in the United States, 1970–2002. Population and Development Review 31, 507527.
Karimi, K. (2011) Trends of marriage and divorce rates in Iran: 1996–2006 [in Persian]. In Population, Policy, and Sustainable Development. Population Studies and Research Center in Asia and the Pacific (PSRC), Tehran, Iran.
Khalajabadi Farahani, F. & Cleland, J. (2015) Perceived norms of premarital heterosexual relationships and sexuality among female college students in Tehran. Culture, Health & Sexuality 17(3), 118.
Khalajabadi Farahani, F. & Kazemipour, S. (2011) Trends of one child families in Iran since 1996: implications for population policy. Paper presented at the UCL and Leverhulme Trust Conference on Human Population Growth and Global Carrying Capacity, May 2011, London, UK. URL: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/popfootprints/poster_presentations (accessed September 2012).
Klobas, J. (2010) Social psychological influences on fertility intentions: a study of eight countries in different social, economic and policy contexts. REPRO-Deliverable 3.8. URL: http://vidrepro.oeaw.ac.at/wp-content/uploads/TPB-model-fertility-intentions.pdf.
Koropeckyj-Cox, T. & Pendell, G. (2007) The gender gap in attitudes about childlessness in the United States. Journal of Marriage and the Family 69(4), 899915.
Miller, W. B. & Pasta, D. J. (1995) The psychology of child timing: a measurement instrument and a model. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 24, 218250.
Ministry of Culture of Iran (2001) Values and Attitudes of Iranians (Wave 1). Office of the Survey of Values and Attitudes, Ministry of Culture, Tehran.
Ministry of Culture of Iran (2003) Values and Attitudes of Iranians (Wave 2). Office of the Survey of Values and Attitudes, Ministry of Culture, Tehran.
Mohammadi, M. R., Alikhani, S., Khalajabadi Farahani, F. & Bahonar, A. (2007) Parents’ attitudes towards adolescent boy’s reproductive health needs and practice in Tehran. Iran Journal of Psychiatry 2, 1324.
Morgan, S. P. (1981) Intention and uncertainty at later stages of childbearing: the United States 1965 and 1970. Demography 18(3), 267285.
Morgan, S. P. (1982) Parity-specific fertility intentions and uncertainty: the United States, 1970 to 1976. Demography 19(3), 315334.
Philipov, D., Liefbroer, A. C. & Klobas, J. (2015) Reproductive Decision-Making in a Macro-Micro Perspective. Springer.
Quesnel-Vallée, A. & Morgan, P. (2003) Missing the target? Correspondence of fertility intentions and behavior in the United States. Population Research and Policy Review 22, 497525.
Schoen, R., Astone, N. M., Kim, Y. J., Nathanson, C. A. & Fields, J. M. (1999) Do fertility intentions affect fertility behavior? Journal of Marriage and the Family 61(3), 790799.
Schoen, R., Kim, Y. J., Nathanson, C. A., Fields, J. & Astone, N. M. (1997) Why do Americans want children? Population and Development Review 23, 333358.
South, S. J. & Baumer, E. P. (2000) Deciphering community and race effects on adolescent premarital childbearing. Social Forces 78(4), 13791407.
Supreme Council of Cultural Revolution (SCCR) (2012) Strategies and National Measures to Prevent Fertility Decline and Improve Fertility Rate Commensurate with the Teachings of Islam and the Country’s Strategic Requirements [in Persian]. Act 712, approved at the May 23rd 2012. Supreme Council of Cultural Revolution meeting, Tehran, Iran. URL: http://www.iranculture.org/fa/simpleView.aspx?provID=1822 (accessed 15th May 2015).
Thomson, E. (1997) Couple childbearing desires, intentions, and births. Demography 34(3), 343354.
Thomson, E. & Brandreth, Y. (1995) Measuring fertility demand. Demography 32(1), 8196.
Statistical Center of Iran (2011) Population and Housing Census, 2011. URL: http://www.sci.org.ir (accessed October 2015).
Yamaguchi, K. & Ferguson, L. R. (1995) The stopping and spacing of childbirths and their birth-history predictors: rational-choice theory and event-history analysis. American Sociological Review 60, 272298.

LOW FERTILITY INTENTION IN TEHRAN, IRAN: THE ROLE OF ATTITUDES, NORMS AND PERCEIVED BEHAVIOURAL CONTROL

  • Amir Erfani (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed