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“Students Are [Not] Slaves”: 1960s Student Power Debates in Tennessee

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 January 2019

KATHERINE BALLANTYNE
Affiliation:
History Department, University of Birmingham. Email: katherinejballantyne@gmail.com.
Corresponding

Abstract

This article examines 1960s student power debates at Tennessee universities. It makes three main arguments. First, student protests over in loco parentis restrictions fit into an emerging student demand for autonomy more broadly, even in a politically and culturally conservative state like Tennessee. Second, these student power debates complicate the 1960s movements declension narrative, since Tennessee student activism peaked in 1970. Third, though black and white students both demanded greater personal autonomy, continued racial inequities on and off Tennessee campuses rendered their experiences distinct.

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Articles
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Copyright © Cambridge University Press and British Association for American Studies 2019

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References

1 University of Tennessee Special Collections (UTSC), Office of the University Historian Collection, 1819–1997 (bulk 1870–1997), AR.0015, Series VI, Student Unrest (OUHCVI), Box 23, File 11, Anti-War Protests (1 of 2), “Moratorium – to War or Not to War,” Daily Beacon, 15 Oct. 1969.

2 Memphis State University was renamed the University of Memphis in 1994.

3 For more on the association between the movements see Cohen, Robert, Freedom's Orator: Mario Savio and the Radical Legacy of the 1960s (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 1Google Scholar.

4 Quoted in Levy, Peter B., The New Left and Labor in the 1960s (Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1994), 117Google Scholar.

5 Wisconsin Historical Society (WHS), Social Action Vertical File, Box 45, Southern Student Organizing Committee, Folder Executive Committee Meetings, Lynn Wells, “Some Ideas On My Generation,” 8 June 1967.

6 The demonstration took place on 23 February 1967 in front of Sewanee Vice Chancellor Dr. McCrady's, Edward house. “First Demonstration Erupts over Bad Gailor Situation,” Sewanee Purple, 85, 16 (2 March 1967), 1Google Scholar. For more on this episode, see Williamson, Samuel R. Jr, Sewanee Sesquicentennial History: The Making of the University of the South (Sewanee: The University of the South, 2008), 320-321Google Scholar.

7 For post-1960s studies see, for instance, Hall, Simon, “Protest Movements in the 1970s: The Long 1960s,” Journal of Contemporary History, 43, 4 (2008), 655–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Foley, Michael S., Front Porch Politics: The Forgotten Heyday of American Activism in the 1970s and 1980s (New York: Hill and Wang, 2013)Google Scholar; Biondi, Martha, The Black Revolution on Campus (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 2012)Google Scholar.

8 See especially Gitlin, Todd, The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage (New York: Bantam, 1987)Google Scholar; Carson, Clayborne, In Struggle: SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s (Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press, 1981)Google Scholar; Michel, Gregg, Struggle for a Better South: The Southern Student Organizing Committee, 1964–1969 (New York: Palgrave McMillan, 2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar. On the declension thesis more generally see McAdam, Doug, Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930–1970, 2nd edn (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Patterson, James T., The Eve of Destruction: How 1965 Transformed America (New York: Basic Books, 2012)Google Scholar.

9 Turner, Jeffrey A., Sitting In and Speaking Out: Student Movements in the American South 1960–1970 (Athens and London: University of Georgia Press, 2010), 18Google Scholar; Hess, Earl J., Lincoln Memorial University and the Shaping of Appalachia (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2011), chapter 7Google Scholar.

10 Fry, Joseph A., The American South and the Vietnam War: Belligerence, Protest, and Agony in Dixie (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2015), 290CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

11 Letters to the editor, Sewanee Purple, 80, 17 (14 March 1963), 2; Grimball, Bill, “A Continuation of the History of Student–Faculty Relations,” Sewanee Purple, 85, 6 (27 Oct. 1966), 2Google Scholar.

12 Gailor Behavior Two Sided Coin,” Sewanee Purple, 85, 11 (8 Dec. 1966), 2Google Scholar.

13 First Demonstration Erupts over Bad Gailor Situation,” Sewanee Purple, 85, 16 (2 March 1967), 1Google Scholar. For more on this episode, see Williamson, 320–21.

14 Southwestern at Memphis was the official name for the university, renamed Rhodes College in 1984. Crossroads to Freedom, Oral History Archive, Rhodes College, interview with Bill Short, 27 July 2007, at www.crossroadstofreedom.org/detail.collection?max=64&page=3&oid=16&order=oid&dir=asc; Williamson, 320; “Maryville Miss, WSGA Handbook for Resident Women, 1963–64,” in possession of the author.

15 First mention appears in Kinnett, Ken, “Our Fading Tradition,” Sewanee Purple, 63, 16 (7 March 1956), 2Google Scholar.

16 Haynes, Stephen B., The Last Segregated Hour: The Memphis Kneel-Ins and the Campaign for Southern Church Desegregation (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2012), 80CrossRefGoogle Scholar; “Maryville Miss”; Friedel, John, “Comment,” Sewanee Purple, 85, 4 (13 Oct. 1966), 6Google Scholar; Faculty Passes Amended Resolution,” Sewanee Purple, 85, 5 (20 Oct. 1966), 1Google Scholar; Friedel, John, “Comment,” Sewanee Purple, 85, 6 (27 Oct. 1966), 4Google Scholar; Akins, Bill and Wiggins, Genevieve, Keeping the Faith: A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College, 1857–2007 (Athens: Tennessee Wesleyan College, 2007), 121–22Google Scholar. One Southwestern student recalled that chapel attendance policies continued to be negotiated until 1971. See Short, interview, 27 July 2007.

17 FBI Records: The Vault (FB0I), letter from SAC in Knoxville, to director, FBI, COINTELPRO-New Left, Bureau File xx-100-3687, 13 June 1968.

18 The 1969 Lane College protests primarily concerned black student rights. See below in this piece.

19 University of Memphis Special Collections (UMSC), Dr. Cecil C. Humphreys Collection (PO-HUMP) (CCHC), Box 4, Folder 29, letter to Dr. Cecil C. Humphreys from associate dean of students Clarence Hampton, n.d.

20 Akins and Wiggins, 122.

21 Short interview, 27 July 2007; “Maryville Miss”; Rhodes College Archives and Special Collections (RCASC), “Dorm Board Considers Rules Revision,” The Sou'wester, 18 Oct. 1968, 1. The Vanderbilt students opposed the rule banning women from men's dormitories. See Fry, The American South and the Vietnam War, 290–91; “Sit-In in Tennessee,” New York Times, 13 Dec. 1969, 21.

22 Williamson, 325.

23 Keenan, Bruce S., “Gentlemen, (I Hope) …,” Sewanee Purple, 76, 3 (22 Oct. 1958), 2Google Scholar.

24 Showalter, Jim, comment, Highland Echo, 54, 20 (15 May 1969), 4Google Scholar.

25 Vanderbilt University Special Collections and Archives, S.S.O.C. Reunion 2002, box Dave and Ronda Kotelchuck/Dec. 2000 Acquisition, Vanderbilt Hustler, 28 Feb. 1967; Maryville College Library and Archives, box Ledgers, File Student–Faculty Senate Minutes 1960–1967, 18 Feb. 1966; Maryville College Library and Archives, Board Minutes, 1951–1974, File Board of Directors Minutes 1965–1974, Spring Meeting of the Directors of Maryville College, 29 April 1971.

26 Joseph, Peniel E., “Black Studies, Student Activism, and the Black Power Movement,” in Joseph, ed., The Black Power Movement: Rethinking the Civil Rights-Black Power Era (New York and London: Routledge, 2006), 251–78, 263–64Google Scholar.

27 Rogers, Ibram H., The Black Campus Movement: Black Students and the Racial Reconstitution of Higher Education, 1965–1972 (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2012), 71Google Scholar.

28 Joseph, 263–64.

29 Rogers, 113.

30 UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 23, File 16, Election Controversy, 1969 (SGA), “Two Withdraw from SGA Race,” Daily Beacon, 22 May 1969.

31 The event was rescheduled from 7 May. UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 23, File 16, Election Controversy, 1969 (SGA), “Tribunal Rules SGA Elections ‘Invalid’,” Daily Beacon, 10 May 1969.

32 Wallenstein, Peter, “Black Southerners and Nonblack Universities: The Process of Desegregating Southern Higher Education, 1935–1965,” in Wallenstein, ed., Higher Education and the Civil Rights Movement: White Supremacy, Black Southerners, and College Campuses (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2008), 1759, 51Google Scholar.

33 UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 23, File 16, Election Controversy, 1969 (SGA), “‘Common Sense’: Baxter Approach,” Daily Beacon, 27 May 1969.

34 UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 23, File 16, Election Controversy, 1969 (SGA), “Long Wins Narrow Victory over Hager,” Daily Beacon, 8 May 1969; “‘Common Sense’: Baxter Approach.”

35 “‘Common Sense’: Baxter Approach.”

36 UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 23, File 16, Election Controversy, 1969 (SGA), “Baxter: ‘Reorganization, Practicality, Reason’,” Daily Beacon, 30 May 1969.

Ibid.

38 Jimmie Baxter, interview by Jamie Roberts, 2 Dec. 1993, transcript held in UTSC, OUHCV, Box 22, Folder 10, Blacks – Faculty at UT.

Ibid.

40 Correspondence between Barry Bozeman and the author, 19 June 2014.

41 UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 23, File 16, Election Controversy, 1969 (SGA), “Reinstating Baxter”, Daily Beacon, 23 May 1969.

42 “Baxter: ‘Reorganization, Practicality, Reason’.”

43 Similar conflicts over speaker policies also occurred at University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill, University of South Carolina, Louisiana State University, and Western Kentucky University. See Fry, The American South and the Vietnam War, 291.

44 Carmichael had given numerous campus tours during the 1966–67 academic year. See Rogers, The Black Campus Movement, 78.

45 Tennessee A & I was renamed Tennessee State University in 1968.

46 Lovett, Bobby L., The Civil Rights Movement in Tennessee: A Narrative History (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2005), 205Google Scholar.

47 WHS, Carl and Anne Braden Papers, 1928–2006 (MSS 6), Part 1, sub-series Southern Conference Educational Files, 1954–1972, Box 56, Folder 8, Nashville, Tennessee, 1958–1964, document about the status of southern student activism written by Ed Hamlett, n.d. (c.1964).

48 Lovett, 206.

49 Ibid., 208–12.

Ibid.

50 For more on the impact of the riots following Carmichael's speech in Nashville see Houston, Benjamin, The Nashville Way: Racial Etiquette and the Struggle for Social Justice in a Southern City (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2012), chapter 5Google Scholar.

51 Ramsey, Sonya, “‘We Will Be Ready Whenever They Are’: African American Teachers’ Responses to the Brown Decision and Public School Integration in Nashville, Tennessee, 1954–1966,” Journal of African American History, 90 (2005), 2951, 46CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

52 Powell was also the subject of a speaker controversy at Memphis State University in 1969. See UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 24, File 1, Open Speakers Controversy (1 of 2), “The Speaker Ban Controversy: A Statement of Fact and Principle by the Student Government Association.”

Ibid.

54 “The Speaker Ban Controversy: A Statement of Fact and Principle by the Student Government Association.” Dick Gregory reportedly made the highest number of speeches in the black campus movement, reportedly 500 in one account. See Rogers, The Black Campus Movement, 81.

55 UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 24, File 1, Open Speakers Controversy (1 of 2), “Board Considers Speaker Policy,” Daily Beacon, 1 Feb. 1969.

56 UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 24, File 1, Open Speakers Controversy (1 of 2), “Speaker's Policy for the University of Tennessee,” Board of Trustees, Executive Session, 18 Oct. 1968.

57 UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 24, File 1, Open Speakers Controversy (1 of 2), “1968–69: UT's Year of Changes,” Daily Beacon, 25 Sept. 1969.

Ibid.
Ibid.

60 “Judge Says U. of Tennessee Violates Freedom of Speech,” New York Times, 19 April 1969, 21; UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 24, File 1, Open Speakers Controversy (1 of 2), “Speaker Policy ‘Null and Void’,” Daily Beacon, 2 May 1969.

61 UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 24, File 1, Open Speakers Controversy (1 of 2), “New UT Speaker Policy Approved,” Summer Beacon, 20 June 1969.

62 See especially Cohen, Freedom's Orator.

63 On this process at Memphis State see UMSC, CCHC, Box 4, Folder 29, David Vincent, “Identity Is Hard for All at MSU,” Commercial Appeal, 8 March 1968; Kinchen, Shirletta J., Black Power in the Bluff City: African American Youth and Student Activism in Memphis, 1965–1975 (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2016), 149Google Scholar.

64 UMSC, CCHC, Box 4, Folder 29, David Vincent, “Huge Negro Enrollment at MSU Has Produced Few Real Problems,” Commercial Appeal, 6 March 1968.

Ibid.

66 University of Memphis, Office of Multicultural Affairs, at www.memphis.edu/multiculturalaffairs/organizations/index.php.

67 UMSC, CCHC, Box 4, Folder 29, “Statement of Dr. C. C. Humphreys [to] Students, Faculty and Friends of Memphis State University,” 29 April 1969.

Ibid.

69 “1968–69: UT's Year of Changes.”

70 “Statement of Dr. C. C. Humphreys.”

Ibid.
Ibid.

73 Sorrels, William, The Exciting Years: The Cecil C. Humphreys Presidency of Memphis State University, 1960–1972 (Memphis: Memphis State University Press, 1987), 174Google Scholar.

74 “Statement of Dr. C. C. Humphreys.”

Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid.

78 Sorrels, 176; Rogers, The Black Campus Movement, 138; Kinchen, Black Power in the Bluff City, 164–165.

79 “Statement of Dr. C. C. Humphreys.”

80 Rogers, 123.

81 van Deburg, William L., New Day in Babylon: The Black Power Movement and American Culture, 1965–1975 (London and Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1992), 66CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

82 UMSC, CCHC, Box 4, Folder 35, petition signed by 873 students in support of Humphreys and Memphis State administration, 29 April 1969.

83 UMSC, CCHC, Box 4, Folders 37–40; Sorrels, 178.

84 Kinchen, 57.

85 RCASC, “Black Campus Erupts in Turmoil; Protest Molds LeMoyne Reform,” Sou'wester, 6 Dec. 1968, 1; Rogers, 120.

86 Kinchen, 125–26.

87 Ibid., 123–41.

Ibid.

88 “Black Campus Erupts In Turmoil”; Rogers, 120; Kinchen, 124.

89 UMSC, CCHC, Box 4, Folder 29, statement to parents of students, alumni, supporters and friends of Lane College from C. A. Kirkendoll, president of Lane College, 4 April 1969; Rogers, 122; Kinchen, 160.

90 Rogers, Ibram H., “The Black Campus Movement and the Institutionalization of Black Studies, 1965–1970,” Journal of African American Studies, 16, 1 (2012), 2140, 31CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

91 Statement to parents of students, alumni, supporters and friends of Lane College from C. A. Kirkendoll.

92 Ibid.; “Fear More Violence at Lane College,” Chicago Defender, 24 March 1969, 3; Miles, Michael W., The Radical Probe: The Logic of Student Rebellion (New York: Atheneum, 1973), 236Google Scholar.

Ibid.

93 Rogers, The Black Campus Movement, 107; Kinchen, 150. For more on the student experience in the BSU (as well as the UT SSOC chapter) see interview of James “Sparky” Rucker, “A Sense of Revolution,” The Vietnam War: East Tennessee, East Tennessee Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), 17 Feb. 2017.

94 UTSC, Office of the University Historian Collection, 1819–1997 (bulk 1870–1997), Series V, Race Relations (OUHCV), Box 22, Folder 8, Black Student Union and Black Studies Office, “Blacks Consider Class Boycott,” Daily Beacon, 25 Sept. 1969.

95 UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 23, File 15, Demonstration Clippings, “Officials Hear Demands of Picketing Black Students,” Daily Beacon, 9 May 1969.

96 UTSC, OUHCV, Box 22, Folder 8, Black Student Union and Black Studies Office, “[Aldmon] Says Understanding Came from BSU Meetings,” Daily Beacon, 16 May 1969.

97 UTSC, OUHCV, Box 22, Folder 8, Black Student Union and Black Studies Office, “BSU Continues Demonstration,” Daily Beacon, 10 May 1969.

98 “[Aldmon] Says Understanding Came From BSU Meetings.”

99 UTSC, OUHCV, Box 22, Folder 8, Black Student Union and Black Studies Office, “Follow-Up to BSU's Recommendations Presented in the Spring Quarter 1969,” n.d.

100 UTSC, OUHCV, Box 22, Folder 8, Black Student Union and Black Studies Office, “BSU Votes Unified Black Studies,” Daily Beacon, 22 Jan. 1970.

101 Modern Political Archive, University of Tennessee (MPA), William Emerson Brock Collection (MPA.106), Box 31, Folder 9, Correspondence, Fisk Univ. Visit, letter from Congressman Lawrence Coughlin to Congressman William Brock, 27 May 1969.

102 These tensions evident on the state and local levels between authorities and student activists were clear on the national level as well. Lyndon B. Johnson was angered by young antiwar demonstrators whom he felt hindered his administration's efforts to justify American involvement in Vietnam. During Richard Nixon's presidency, White House officials frequently spoke out against protestors, most notably on 19 October 1969 when Vice President Spiro Agnew stated, “A spirit of national masochism prevails, encouraged by an effete corps of impudent snobs who characterize themselves as intellectuals.” Dallek, Robert, Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1961–1973 (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), 451Google Scholar; “As Spiro Agnew Sees It,” New York Times, 10 May 1970, 159.

103 UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 23, File 13, The Boling Appointment Controversy, “Speculation Running Rampant on UT President's Successor,” 27 June 1969.

104 Ibid.

Ibid.

105 Barry Bozeman, “40 Year Flashback – Nixon & Graham at Tennessee,” 28 May 2010, at www.dailykos.com/story/2010/05/28/864563/-40-YEAR-FLASHBACK-NIXON-GRAHAM-at-TENNESSEE. Bozeman was the 22nd protestor arrested on the felony charge of inciting a riot following the 15 January 1970 protest.

106 UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 23, File 13, The Boling Appointment Controversy, “Will the Board Ever Learn?”, Daily Beacon, 22 Aug. 1969, original emphasis.

107 UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 23, File 13, The Boling Appointment Controversy, “Students Set Stage for Protest Today,” Daily Beacon, 15 Jan. 1970. For more on this incident, see Fry, The American South and the Vietnam War, 298; interview of Gary Heatherly, “A Sense of Revolution,” The Vietnam War: East Tennessee, East Tennessee Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) 2017, n.d.

108 Bozeman, “40 Year Flashback.”

109 Ibid.

Ibid.

110 UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 23, File 13, The Boling Appointment Controversy, “UT Student Demonstration Subsides,” Daily Beacon, 16 Jan. 1970.

111 “U.T. Goes Wild,” Highland Echo, 55, 2 (10 April 1970).

112 FBI, letter, from SAC in Knoxville, to director, FBI, 19 Feb. 1970, COINTELPRO – New Left, Bureau File xx-100-3687.

113 UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 23, File 13, The Boling Appointment Controversy, “21 Arrested: Rebel Students Call for Vote, Strike at U-T,” Knoxville News-Sentinel, 16 Jan. 1970.

114 Ibid.

Ibid.

115 UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 23, File 13, The Boling Appointment Controversy, “Demonstration Conducted Peacefully,” Daily Beacon, 12 Feb. 1970.

116 UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 23, File 13, The Boling Appointment Controversy, “Several Students Protest Selection of Boling,” Daily Beacon, 9 Jan. 1970.

117 UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 23, File 15, Demonstration Clippings, “UTC Leftists Stir Anger of State's Legislators,” Chattanooga News-Free Press, 18 Jan. 1970.

118 UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 23, File 15, Demonstration Clippings, Iva-Jean Butler, “Weaver Says: Strike Worse than Nixon Protest,” Daily Beacon, 30 May 1970.

119 Lipset, Seymour Martin, Rebellion in the University: A History of Student Activism in America (Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge and Kegan Paul Press, 1972), 5Google Scholar.

120 Interview with Cynthia Fleming, “A Sense of Revolution,” The Vietnam War: East Tennessee, East Tennessee Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) 2017; Warren, Judith, “Strike,” The Sou'wester, 51, 23, 15 May 1970, 1Google Scholar; RCASC, President's Papers, 70-62 Campus Unrest, 1970, press release, 8 May 1970; “ACC Discusses National – International Crises,” Highland Echo, 55, 6, 8 May 1970, 1.

121 UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 23, File 12, Anti-war Protests (2 of 2), “Baxter Calls 3-Day Student Strike,” Daily Beacon, 6 May 1970.

122 UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 23, File 20, Nixon–Graham Crusade, 1970, “UT Scene of Political Activism, Rapid Expansion in Recent Years,” Daily Beacon, 9 May 1977.

123 See Anderson, Terry H., The Movement and the Sixties (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1995)Google Scholar; Farber, David, Chicago ’68 (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Tracy, James, Direct Action: Radical Pacifism From the Union Eight to the Chicago Seven (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1996)Google Scholar.

124 “Our Neighbors Speak: ‘Attorney Kunstler and UT’,” Knoxville News-Sentinel, 17 March 1970, 10.

125 “ACLU Criticizes Anti-Kunstler Talk,” Knoxville News-Sentinel, 18 March 1970, 36.

126 Fred A. Peters, “Says City Dump Should Be Site of Kunstler's Speech,” letter to the editor, Knoxville News-Sentinel, 26 March 1970, 14.

127 FBI, memo, Knoxville, to director, FBI, William Moses Kunstler, Bureau File xx-100-3811, 15 May 1970.

128 Lois Reagan Thomas, “Carroll Bible Planning; Kunstler Urges All-Out UT Strike,” Knoxville News-Sentinel, 15 May 1970, 7.

129 Ibid.

Ibid.

130 These professors were Dr. Richard Marius and Dr. Charles Reynolds.

131 Ibid.

Ibid.

132 UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 23, File 20, Nixon–Graham Crusade, 1970, Billy Graham Crusade at Neyland Stadium Program, 30 May 1970; UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 23, File 20, Nixon–Graham Crusade, 1970, Volunteer Moments: Vignettes of the History of The University of Tennessee, 1794–1994, prepared by the Office of the University Historian, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 1994, 78.

133 Perlstein, Rick, Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America (New York: Scribner, 2008), 500Google Scholar.

134 MPA, Richard Nixon/Billy Graham Episode Tapes, 1987 (MPA.190) (RNBG), Interview #21, Dr. Charles Weaver, 1 June 1987.

135 MPA, RNBG, Tape Number 16, Dr. Charles H. Reynolds, 27 April 1987; Richard M. Nixon Presidential Library (RNPLM), White House Communications Agency, Weekly News Summaries (WHCAWNS), File ID 3737, 29 May 1970.

136 MPA, RNBG, Tape Number 12, Dr. Kenneth Newton, 27 April 1987.

137 See RNPLM, White House Central Files (WHCF), Trips (TR), Box 38 Ex TR 48-1 Knoxville, Tenn. to speak at the Billy Graham's “Crusade,” Univ. of Tenn., 5/28/70; Volunteer Moments, 80.

138 RNPLM, WHCAWNS, File ID 3737, 29 May 1970.

139 Miller, Steven P., Billy Graham and the Rise of the Republican South (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009), 142Google Scholar.

140 RNPLM, WHCAWNS, File ID: 3737, 29 May 1970.

141 UTSC, OUHCVI, Box 23, File 15, Demonstration Clippings, Statement from Chancellor Weaver regarding his involvement in bringing Graham's Crusade to campus, 5 June 1970.

142 Volunteer Moments, 82; Jack Neely, “The World Was Watching,” Metro Pulse, 22 May 2000, at http://weeklywire.com/ww/05-22-00/knox_cover.html; Wheeler, William Bruce, Knoxville, Tennessee: A Mountain City in the New South, 2nd edn (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2005), 146Google Scholar.

143 Bozeman, “40 Year Flashback.”

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