Barcellos, JOJ, Queiroz Filho, LA, Ceolin, CA, Gianezini, M, McManus, C, Malafaia, GC and Oaigen, RP (2011) Technological innovation and entrepreneurship in animal production. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 40(suppl. especial), 189–200.
Basarab, J, Baron, V, López-Campos, Ó, Aalhus, J, Haugen-Kozyra, K and Okine, E (2012) Greenhouse gas emissions from calf- and yearling-fed beef production systems, with and without the use of growth promotants. Animals 2, 195–220.
Bassett, JM (1991) Current perspectives on placental development and its integration with fetal growth. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 50, 311–319.
Bauman, DE and Currie, WB (1980) Partitioning of nutrients during pregnancy and lactation: a review of mechanisms involving homeostasis and homeorhesis. Journal Dairy Science 63, 1514–1529.
Beck, TJ, Simms, DD, Cochran, RC, Brandt, RT, Vanzant, ES and Kuhl, GL (1992) Supplementation of ammoniated wheat straw: performance and forage utilization characteristics in beef cattle receiving energy and protein supplements. Journal of Animal Science 70, 349–357.
Bee, G (2004) Effect of early gestation feeding, birth weight, and gender of progeny on muscle fiber characteristics of pigs at slaughter. Journal of Animal Science 82, 826–836.
Bellows, RA and Short, RE (1978) Effects of precalving feed level on birth weight, calving difficulty and subsequent fertility. Journal of Animal Science 46, 1522–1528.
Borenstein, M, Hedges, LV, Higgins, JPT and Rothstein, HR (2009) Introduction to Meta-Analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
Camacho, LE, Lemley, CO, Van Emon, ML, Caton, JS, Swanson, KC and Vonnahme, KA (2014) Effects of maternal nutrient restriction followed by realimentation during early and midgestation on beef cows. I. Maternal performance and organ weights at different stages of gestation. Journal of Animal Science 92, 520–529.
Camacho, LE, Lemley, CO, Dorsam, ST, Swanson, KC and Vonnahme, KA (2018) Effects of maternal nutrient restriction followed by realimentation during early and mid-gestation in beef cows. II. Placental development, umbilical blood flow, and uterine blood flow responses to diet alterations. Theriogenology 116, 1–11.
Canozzi, MEA, Mederos, A, Manteca, X, Turner, S, McManus, C, Zago, D and Barcellos, JOJ (2017) A meta-analysis of cortisol concentration, vocalization, and average daily gain associated with castration in beef cattle. Research in Veterinary Science 114, 430–443.
Carstens, GE, Johnson, DE, Holland, MD and Odde, KG (1987) Effects of prepartum protein nutrition and birth weight on basal metabolism in bovine neonates. Journal of Animal Science 65, 745–751.
Caton, JS and Hess, BW (2010) Maternal plane of nutrition: impacts on foetal outcomes and postnatal offspring responses. In Hess, CBW, DelCurto, T, Bowman, JGP and Waterman, RC (eds), Proceedings 4th Grazing Livestock Nutrition Conference. Champaign, Illinois, USA: Western Section American Society of Animal Science, pp. 104–122.
Ceballos, A, Sánchez, J, Stryhn, H, Montgomery, JB, Barkema, HW and Wichtel, JJ (2009) Meta-analysis of the effect of oral selenium supplementation on milk selenium concentration in cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 324–342.
Clarke, L, Heasman, L, Juniper, DT and Symonds, ME (1998) Maternal nutrition in early-mid gestation and placental size in sheep. British Journal of Nutrition 79, 359–364.
Corah, LR, Quealy, AP, Dunn, TG and Kaltenbach, CC (1974) Prepartum and postpartum levels of progesterone and estradiol in beef heifers fed two levels of energy. Journal of Animal Science 39, 380–385.
Corah, LR, Dunn, TG and Kaltenbach, CC (1975) Influence of prepartum nutrition on the reproductive performance of beef females and the performance of their progeny. Journal of Animal Science 41, 819–824.
Da Silva, P, Aitken, RP, Rhind, SM, Racey, PA and Wallace, JM (2001) Influence of placentally mediated foetal growth restriction on the onset of puberty in male and female lambs. Reproduction 122, 375–383.
DerSimonian, R and Laird, N (1986) Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Controlled Clinical Trials 7, 177–188.
Dickerson, G (1970) Efficiency of animal production – molding the biological components. Journal of Animal Science 30, 849–859.
Domokos, Z, Vertse Zándoki, R and Tőzsér, J (2011) Change of body condition of charolais cows in relation of birth and weaning weight of calves, process of calving and period until next pregnancy in two stock herds. Bulletin UASVM Animal Science and Biotechnologies 68, 6–14.
Du, M, Tong, J, Zhao, J, Underwood, KR, Zhu, M, Ford, SP and Nathanielsz, PW (2010 a) Fetal programming of skeletal muscle development in ruminant animals. Journal of Animal Science 88(13 Suppl), E51–E60.
Du, M, Yan, X, Tong, JF, Zhao, J and Zhu, MJ (2010 b) Maternal obesity, inflammation, and fetal skeletal muscle development. Biology of Reproduction 82, 4–12.
Du, M, Huang, Y, Das, AK, Yang, Q, Duarte, MS, Dodson, MV and Zhu, MJ (2013) Manipulating mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation to optimize performance and carcass value of beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science 91, 1419–1427.
Du, M, Wang, B, Fu, X, Yang, Q and Zhu, MJ (2015) Fetal programming in meat production. Meat Science 109, 40–47.
Duarte, MS, Gionbelli, MP, Paulino, PVR, Serão, NVL, Martins, TS, Tótaro, PIS, Neves, CA, Valadares Filho, SC, Dodson, MV, Zhu, M and Du, M (2013) Effects of maternal nutrition on development of gastrointestinal tract of bovine foetus at different stages of gestation. Livestock Science 153, 60–65.
Durunna, ON, Block, HC, Iwaasa, AD, Thompson, LC, Scott, SL, Robins, C, Khakbazan, M and Lardner, HA (2014) Impact of calving seasons and feeding systems in western Canada. I. Postweaning growth performance and carcass characteristics of crossbred steers. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 94, 571–582.
Duval, S and Tweedie, R (2000) Trim and fill: a simple funnel-plot-based method of testing and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Biometrics 56, 455–463.
Egger, M, Smith, GD and Altman, DG (2001) Systematic Reviews in Health Care. London, UK: MBJ Publishing Group.
Erhardt, RA and Bell, AW (1995) Growth and metabolism of the ovine placenta during mid-gestation. Placenta 16, 727–741.
Ferrell, CL (1991) Maternal and fetal influences on uterine and conceptus development in the cow: I. Growth of the tissues of the gravid uterus. Journal of Animal Science 69, 1945–1953.
Ferrell, CL, Garrett, WN and Hinman, N (1976) Growth, development and composition of the udder and gravid uterus of beef heifers during pregnancy. Journal of Animal Science 42, 1477–1489.
Fiems, LO, Van Caelenbergh, W, Vanacker, JM, De Campeneere, S and Seynaeve, M (2005) Prediction of empty body composition of double-muscled beef cows. Livestock Production Science 92, 249–259.
Funston, RN and Summers, AF (2013) Effect of prenatal programming on heifer development. Veterinary Clinics: Food Animal Practice 29, 517–536.
Funston, RN, Martin, JL, Adams, DC and Larson, DM (2010) Winter grazing system and supplementation of beef cows during late gestation influence heifer progeny. Journal of Animal Science 88, 4094–4101.
Garay, ODV, Murillo, JMF, Pérez, MJH, Guerra, CJY, Jiménez, CM, Ríos, TEB and Coma, JR (2014) Efectos raciales, de heterosis y parámetros genéticos para peso al nacer en una población multirracial de ganado de carne em Colombia. Livestock Research for Rural Development 26, 3. http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd26/3/verg26058.html (accessed 6 March 2019).
Gonzalez, JM, Camacho, LE, Ebarb, SM, Swanson, KC, Vonnahme, KA, Stelzleni, AM and Johnson, SE (2013) Realimentation of nutrient restricted pregnant beef cows supports compensatory fetal muscle growth. Journal of Animal Science 91, 4797–4806.
Greenwood, PL, Hunt, AS, Hermanson, JW and Bell, AW (2000) Effects of birth weight and postnatal nutrition on neonatal sheep: II. Skeletal muscle growth and development. Journal of Animal Science 78, 50–61.
Gutiérrez, V, Espasandín, AC, Machado, P, Bielli, A, Genovese, P and Carriquiry, M (2014) Effects of calf early nutrition on muscle fiber characteristics and gene expression. Livestock Science 167, 408–416.
Han, IK, Bosi, P, Hyun, Y, Kim, JD, Sohn, KS and Kim, SW (2000) Recent advances in sow nutrition to improve reproductive performance. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 13(), 335–355.
Herring, CM, Bazer, FW, Johnson, GA and G, W (2018) Impacts of maternal dietary protein intake on fetal survival, growth, and development. Experimental Biology and Medicine 243, 525–533.
Higgins, JPT and Green, S (2011) Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. London, UK: The Cochrane Collaboration. http://handbook-5-1.cochrane.org/ (accessed 6 March 2019).
Higgins, JPT, Thompson, SG, Deeks, JJ and Altman, DG (2003) Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ: British Medical Journal 327, 557–560.
Houghton, PL, Lemenager, RP, Horstman, LA, Hendrix, KS and Moss, GE (1990) Effects of body composition, pre-and postpartum energy level and early weaning on reproductive performance of beef cows and preweaning calf gain. Journal of Animal Science 68, 1438–1446.
Hyttel, P, Sinowatz, F and Vejlsted, M (2012) Embriologia Veterinária. Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: Elsevier Editora Ltda.
Jones, SJ, Starkey, D, Calkins, CR and Crouse, JD (1990) Myofibrillar protein turnover in feed-restricted and realimented beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science 68, 2707–2715.
Kelly, RW (1992) Nutrition and placental development. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society of Australia 17, 203–211.
Klein, SI, Steichen, PL, Islas, A, Goulart, RS, Gilbery, TC, Bauer, ML, Swanson, KC and Dahlen, CR (2014) Effects of alternate-day feeding of dried distiller's grain plus solubles to forage-fed beef cows in mid-to late gestation. Journal of Animal Science 92, 2677–2685.
Köster, HH, Woods, BC, Cochran, RC, Vanzant, ES, Titgemeyer, EC, Grieger, DM, Olson, KC and Stokka, G (2002) Effect of increasing proportion of supplemental N from urea in prepartum supplements on range beef cow performance and on forage intake and digestibility by steers fed low-quality forage. Journal of Animal Science 80, 1652–1662.
Larson, DM, Martin, JL, Adams, DC and Funston, RN (2009) Winter grazing system and supplementation during late gestation influence performance of beef cows and steer progeny. Journal of Animal Science 87, 1147–1155.
Lobato, JFP, Zanotta Júnior, RLD and Pereira Neto, OA (1998) Efeitos das dietas pré e pós-parto de vacas primíparas sobre o desenvolvimento dos bezerros. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 27, 863–867.
Lodman, DW, Petersen, MK, Clark, CK, Wiley, JS, Havstad, KM and McInerney, MJ (1990) Substitution of DL-methionine for soybean meal as a winter supplement for gestating cows grazing native range. Journal of Animal Science 68, 4361–4375.
Long, NM, Vonnahme, KA, Hess, BW, Nathanielsz, PW and Ford, SP (2009) Effects of early gestational undernutrition on fetal growth, organ development, and placentomal composition in the bovine. Journal of Animal Science 87, 1950–1959.
Long, NM, Prado-Cooper, MJ, Krehbiel, CR and Wettemann, RP (2010) Effects of nutrient restriction of bovine dams during early gestation on postnatal growth and regulation of plasma glucose. Journal of Animal Science 88, 3262–3268.
Martin, JL, Rasby, RJ, Brink, DR, Lindquist, RU, Keisler, DH and Kachman, SD (2005) Effects of supplementation of whole corn germ on reproductive performance, calf performance, and leptin concentration in primiparous and mature beef cows. Journal of Animal Science 83, 2663–2670.
Mederos, A, Waddell, L, Sánchez, J, Kelton, D, Peregrine, AS, Menzies, P, VanLeeuwen, J and Rajic, A (2012) A systematic review-meta-analysis of primary research investigating the effect of selected alternative treatments on gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep under field conditions. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 104, 1–14.
Meyer, AM, Reed, JJ, Vonnahme, KA, Soto-Navarro, SA, Reynolds, LP, Ford, SP, Hess, BW and Caton, JS (2010) Effects of stage of gestation and nutrient restriction during early to mid-gestation on maternal and fetal visceral organ mass and indices of jejunal growth and vascularity in beef cows. Journal of Animal Science 88, 2410–2424.
Micke, GC, Sullivan, TM, Magalhaes, RJS, Rolls, PJ, Norman, ST and Perry, VEA (2010) Heifer nutrition during early- and mid-pregnancy alters fetal growth trajectory and birth weight. Animal Reproduction Science 117, 1–10.
Micke, GC, Sullivan, TM, McMillen, IC, Gentili, S and Perry, VEA (2011) Protein intake during gestation affects postnatal bovine skeletal muscle growth and relative expression of IGF1, IGF1R, IGF2 and IGF2R. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 332, 234–241.
Micke, GC, Sullivan, TM, Kennaway, DJ, Hernandez-Medrano, J and Perry, VEA (2015) Maternal endocrine adaptation throughout pregnancy to nutrient manipulation: consequences for sexually dimorphic programming of thyroid hormones and development of their progeny. Theriogenology 83, 604–615.
Miner, JL, Petersen, MK, Havstad, KM, McInerney, MJ and Bellows, RA (1990) The effects of ruminal escape protein or fat on nutritional status of pregnant winter-grazing beef cows. Journal of Animal Science 68, 1743–1750.
Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J, Altman, DG and the PRISMA Group (2009) Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Annals of Internal Medicine 151, 264–269.
Moisá, SJ, Shike, DW, Shoup, L, Rodriguez-Zas, SL and Loor, JJ (2015) Maternal plane of nutrition during late gestation and weaning age alter Angus × Simmental offspring longissimus muscle transcriptome and intramuscular fat. PLoS ONE 10, e0131478. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131478.
Moriel, P, Artioli, LFA, Piccolo, MB, Marques, RS, Poore, MH and Cooke, RF (2016) Frequency of wet brewers grains supplementation during late gestation of beef cows and its effects on offspring postnatal growth and immunity. Journal of Animal Science 94, 2553–2563.
NRC – National Research Council (1984) Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals. Washington, D.C.: USA: NRC.
NRC – National Research Council (1996) Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. Washington, D.C.: USA: NRC.
Pate, FM, Sanson, DW and Machen, RV (1990) Value of a molasses mixture containing natural protein as a supplement to brood cows offered low-quality forages. Journal of Animal Science 68, 618–623.
Perry, RC, Corah, LR, Cochran, RC, Beal, WE, Stevenson, JS, Minton, JE, Simms, DD and Brethour, JR (1991) Influence of dietary energy on follicular development, serum gonadotropins, and first postpartum ovulation in suckled beef cows. Journal of Animal Science 69, 3762–3773.
Perry, VEA, Norman, ST, Owen, JA, Daniel, RCW and Phillips, N (1999) Low dietary protein during early pregnancy alters bovine placental development. Animal Reproduction Science 55, 13–21.
Radunz, AE, Fluharty, FL, Day, ML, Zerby, HN and Loerch, SC (2010) Prepartum dietary energy source fed to beef cows: I. Effects on pre-and postpartum cow performance. Journal of Animal Science 88, 2717–2728.
Radunz, AE, Fluharty, FL, Relling, AE, Felix, TL, Shoup, LM, Zerby, HN and Loerch, SC (2012) Prepartum dietary energy source fed to beef cows: II. Effects on progeny postnatal growth, glucose tolerance, and carcass composition. Journal of Animal Science 90, 4962–4974.
Rehfeldt, C, Te Pas, MF, Wimmers, K, Brameld, JM, Nissen, PM, Berri, C, Valente, LM, Power, DM, Picard, B, Stickland, NC and Oksbjerg, N (2011) Advances in research on the prenatal development of skeletal muscle in animals in relation to the quality of muscle-based food. I. Regulation of myogenesis and environmental impact. Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience 5, 703–717.
Reid, JT, Ward, GM and Salsbury, R (1948) Mineral metabolism studies in dairy cattle. IV Effects of mineral supplementation of the prepartal diet upon the composition of the blood of cows and their calves at parturition. Journal of Nutrition 36, 75–89.
Reynolds, LP and Redmer, DA (1995) Utero-placental vascular development and placental function. Journal of Animal Science 73, 1839–1851.
Robinson, JJ (1977) The influence of maternal nutrition on ovine foetal growth. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 36, 9–16.
Shell, TM, Early, RJ, Carpenter, JR, Vincent, DL and Buckley, BA (1995) Prepartum nutrition and solar radiation in beef cattle: I. Relationships of body fluid compartments, packed cell volume, plasma urea nitrogen, and estrogens to prenatal development. Journal of Animal Science 73, 1289–1302.
Sims, PL and Bailey, DW (1995) Calf production by Angus-Hereford and Brahman-Hereford cows on two native rangeland forage systems. Journal of Animal Science 73, 2893–2902.
Soto-Murillo, HW, Faulkner, DB, Gianola, D and Cmarik, GF (1993) Effect of breed of sire, breed of dam, pasture program and of their interactions on preweaning performance of crossbred beef calves. Livestock Production Science 33, 55–66.
Spitzer, JC, Morrison, DG, Wettemann, RP and Faulkner, LC (1995) Reproductive responses and calf birth and weaning weights as affected by body condition at parturition and postpartum weight gain in primiparous beef cows. Journal of Animal Science 73, 1251–1257.
Stalker, LA, Adams, DC, Klopfenstein, TJ, Feuz, DM and Funston, RN (2006) Effects of pre and postpartum nutrition on reproduction in spring calving cows and calf feedlot performance. Journal of Animal Science 84, 2582–2589.
Sullivan, T, Micke, G, Perkins, N, Martin, G, Wallace, C, Gatford, K, Owens, J and Perry, V (2009) Dietary protein during gestation affects maternal IGF, IGFBP, leptin concentrations, and fetal growth in heifers. Journal of Animal Science 87, 3304–3316.
Summers, AF, Blair, AD and Funston, RN (2015 a) Impact of supplemental protein source offered to primiparous heifers during gestation on II. Progeny performance and carcass characteristics. Journal of Animal Science 93, 1871–1880.
Summers, AF, Meyer, TL and Funston, RN (2015 b) Impact of supplemental protein source offered to primiparous heifers during gestation on I. Average daily gain, feed intake, calf birth body weight, and rebreeding in pregnant beef heifers. Journal of Animal Science 93, 1865–1870.
Swanson, LD and Bewtra, C (2008) Increase in normal placental weights related to increase in maternal body mass index. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 21, 111–113.
Tedeschi, LO, Fonseca, MA, Muir, JP, Poppi, DP, Carstens, GE, Angerer, JP and Fox, DG (2017) A glimpse of the future in animal nutrition science. 2. Current and future solutions. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 46, 452–469.
Tong, JF, Yan, X, Zhu, MJ, Ford, SP, Nathanielsz, PW and Du, M (2009) Maternal obesity downregulates myogenesis and β-catenin signaling in fetal skeletal muscle. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 296, E917–E924.
Valadares Filho, SDC, Marcondes, MI, Chizzotti, ML and Paulino, PVR (2010) Exigências Nutricionais de Zebuínos Puros e Cruzados: BR-CORTE. Viçosa, MG, Brazil: UFV.
Wallace, JM, Luther, JS, Milne, JS, Aitken, RP, Redmer, DA, Reynolds, LP and Hay, WW (2006) Nutritional modulation of adolescent pregnancy outcome – a review. Placenta 27(Suppl.), 61–68.
Webster, AJF (1981) The energetic efficiency of metabolism. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 40, 121–128.
Wilson, TB, Schroeder, AR, Ireland, FA, Faulkner, DB and Shike, DW (2015 a) Effects of late gestation distillers grains supplementation on fall-calving beef cow performance and steer calf growth and carcass characteristics. Journal of Animal Science 93, 4843–4851.
Wilson, TB, Faulkner, DB and Shike, DW (2015 b) Influence of late gestation drylot rations differing in protein degradability and fat content on beef cow and subsequent calf performance. Journal of Animal Science 93, 5819–5828.
Wilson, TB, Long, NM, Faulkner, DB and Shike, DW (2016 a) Influence of excessive dietary protein intake during late gestation on drylot beef cow performance and progeny growth, carcass characteristics, and plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Journal of Animal Science 94, 2035–2046.
Wilson, TB, Faulkner, DB and Shike, DW (2016 b) Influence of prepartum dietary energy on beef cow performance and calf growth and carcass characteristics. Livestock Science 184, 21–27.
Wiltbank, JN, Rowden, WW, Ingalls, JE, Geegoey, KE and Koch, RM (1962) Effect of energy level on reproductive phenomena of mature Hereford cows. Journal of Animal Science 21, 219–225.
Wiltbank, JN, Bond, J, Warwick, EJ, Davis, RE, Cook, AC, Reynolds, WL and Hasen, MW (1965) Influence of Total Feed and Protein Intake on Reproductive Performance of the Beef Female Through Second Calving. . Washington, D.C., USA: USDA.
Winterholler, SJ, Lalman, DL, Hudson, MD and Goad, CL (2009) Supplemental energy and extruded-expelled cottonseed meal as a supplemental protein source for beef cows consuming low-quality forage. Journal of Animal Science 87, 3003–3012.
Winterholler, SJ, McMurphy, CP, Mourer, GL, Krehbiel, CR, Horn, GW and Lalman, DL (2012) Supplementation of dried distillers grains with solubles to beef cows consuming low-quality forage during late gestation and early lactation. Journal of Animal Science 90, 2014–2025.
Wood, KM, Kelly, MJ, Miller, SP, Mandell, IB and Swanson, KC (2010) Effect of crop residues in haylage-based rations on the performance of pregnant beef cows. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 90, 69–76.
Zehnder, CM, Maddock, TD, DiCostanzo, A, Miller, LR, Hall, JM and Lamb, GC (2010) Using alfalfa leaf meal as a supplement in late-gestation beef heifer and nursing beef calf diets. Journal of Animal Science 88, 2132–2138.