Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Patterns of change in soil organic matter, physical properties and crop productivity under tillage practices and cropping systems in Bangladesh

  • MD. KHAIRUL ALAM (a1), N. SALAHIN (a2), S. ISLAM (a3), R. A. BEGUM (a4), M. HASANUZZAMAN (a5), M. S. ISLAM (a4) and M. M. RAHMAN (a6)...

Summary

Conservation agriculture (CA) is inadequately developed for rice-based cropping systems widely practiced in Bangladesh. The current drawback is the implementation of CA for all crops including rice (Oryza sativa L., ecotype ‘transplanted aman’ [T. aman]) to increase rice–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation productivity. It is important to identify the best combination of tillage types and cropping systems to achieve a high yield of component crops and improve soil health. Three tillage practices, assigned to main experimental plots [namely, zero tillage (ZT), conventional tillage using a rotary tiller (CT) and deep tillage using a chisel plough (DT)] and three different cropping systems, assigned to sub-plots [namely, WFT: wheat–fallow–T. aman, WMT: wheat–mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek)–T. aman and WDT: wheat–dhaincha (Sesbania rostrata)–T. aman], were tested. After 4 years, ZT under WDT and WMT significantly increased soil organic matter (SOM) at 0–150 mm depth, and these replicates also held the highest levels of total organic carbon. Soil organic carbon (C) increased at a rate of 1.17 and 1.14 t/ha/y in ZT under WDT and WMT, respectively, while CT and DT under WFT were almost unchanged. After 4 years, SOM build-up by the three-crop system (WDT and WMT) under ZT helped conserve soil moisture and improve other soil properties, such as reduction in soil strength and bulk density and increase plant available water content, thus maintaining an optimum soil water infiltration rate. Zero tillage under WMT and WDT showed significant improvements in root mass density of rice and wheat at increased soil depth. The WDT and WMT plots under DT consistently gave the highest yield followed by WDT and WMT under CT, in contrast with ZT under WMT or WDT, which showed the highest improvement in crop yields over the years. In summary, minimum soil disturbance together with incorporation of a legume/green manure crop into the rice–wheat system as well as the retention of their residues increased soil C status, improved soil properties and maximized grain yields.

Copyright

Corresponding author

* To whom all correspondence should be addressed. Email: khairul.krishi@gmail.com

References

Hide All
Abbasi, M. K., Tahir, M. M., Shah, A. H. & Batool, F. (2009). Mineral nutrient composition of different ecotypes of white clover and their nutrient credit to soil at Rawalkot Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistan Journal of Botany 41, 4151.
Al-Kaisi, M. & Kwaw-Mensah, D. (2007). Effect of tillage and nitrogen rate on corn yield and nitrogen and phosphorus uptake in a corn–soybean rotation. Agronomy Journal 99, 15481558.
Alam, M. K. & Salahin, N. (2013). Changes in soil physical properties and crop productivity as influenced by different tillage depths and cropping patterns. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research 38, 289299.
Alam, M. K., Salahin, N., Islam, M. M. & Hasanuzzaman, M. (2014). Effect of tillage practices on soil properties and crop productivity of wheat–mungbean–rice cropping system under subtropical climatic conditions. The Scientific World Journal 2014, 115.
Alam, M. K., Biswas, W. K. & Bell, R. W. (2016). Greenhouse gas implications of novel and conventional rice production technologies in the Eastern-Gangetic plains. Journal of Cleaner Production 112, 39773987.
Alliaume, F., Jorge, G. & Dogliotti, S. (2012). Impact of minimum tillage, oat straw management, and chicken manure on soil water content, runoff, erosion and tomato production. Agrociencia Uruguay 16 (Special Issue), 199207.
Alvarez, R., Diaz, R. A., Barbero, N., Santanatoglia, O. J. & Blotta, L. (1995). Soil organic carbon, microbial biomass and CO2–C production from three tillage systems. Soil and Tillage Research 33, 1728.
Anderson, J. P. E. (1982). Soil respiration. In Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, 2nd edn. (Eds Page, A. L., Miller, R. H. & Keeney, D. R.), pp. 837871. Agronomy Monograph 9. Madison, WI: ASA and SSSA.
Annabi, M., Houot, S., Francou, C., Poitrenaud, M. & Bissonnais, Y. L. (2007). Soil aggregate stability improvement with urban composts of different maturities. Soil Science Society of America Journal 71, 413423.
Aryal, J. P., Sapkota, T. B., Jat, M. L. & Bishnoi, D. K. (2015). On-farm economic and environmental impact of zero-tillage wheat: a case of North-West India. Experimental Agriculture 51, 116.
Aulakh, M. S., Khera, T. S., Doran, J. W., Kuldip-Singh, & Bijay-Singh, (2000). Yields and nitrogen dynamics in a rice–wheat system using green manure and inorganic fertilizer. Soil Science Society of America Journal 64, 18671876.
Aulakh, M. S., Khera, T. S., Doran, J. W. & Bronson, K. F. (2001). Managing crop residue with green manure, urea, and tillage in a rice–wheat rotation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 65, 820827.
Balasubramanian, V., Adhya, T. K. & Ladha, J. K. (2012). Enhancing eco-efficiency in the intensive cereal-based systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains. In Issues in Tropical Agriculture Eco–Efficiency: From Vision to Reality (Eds Hershey, C. H. & Neate, P.), pp. 99116. Cali, CO: CIAT.
Balota, E. L., Colozzi-Filho, A., Andrade, D. S. & Dick, R. P. (2003). Microbial biomass in soils under different tillage and crop rotation systems. Biology & Fertility of Soils 38, 1520.
Baumhart, R. L. & Lescano, R. J. (1996). Rain infiltration as affected by wheat residues amount and distribution in ridged tillage. Soil Science Society of America Journal 60, 19081913.
Beare, M. H., Pohland, B. R., Wright, D. H. & Coleman, D. C. (1993). Residue placement and fungicide effects on fungal communities in conventional and no-tillage soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 57, 392399.
Becker, M., Ladha, J. K. & Ottow, J. C. G. (1994). Nitrogen losses and lowland rice yield as affected by residue nitrogen release. Soil Science Society of America Journal 58, 16601665.
Behera, B. K., Varshney, B. P. & Goel, A. K. (2009). Effect of puddling on puddled soil characteristics and performance of self-propelled transplanter in rice crop. Agricultural Engineering International: The CIGR Ejournal XI, Manuscript PM 08 020. Available from: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/issue/view/34 (verified 15 February 2016).
Black, C. A. (1965). Method of Soil Analysis Part –I and II. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy.
Brammer, H., Antoine, J., Kassam, A. H. & Van Velthuizen, H. T. (1996). Land Resources Appraisal of Bangladesh for Agricultural Development. Report 3: Land Resources Data Base, Volume II, Soil, Landform and Hydrological Data Base. Rome: UNDP/FAO.
Bueno, C. S. & Ladha, J. K. (2009). Comparison of soil properties between continuously cultivated and adjacent uncultivated soils in rice-based systems. Biology and Fertility of Soils 45, 499509.
Bunch, R. (1995). The Use of Green Manures by Villager Farmers; What we Have Learned to Date. CIDDCO Technical Report No. 3, 2 edn. Tegucigalpa MDC, Honduras: CIDICCO.
Chan, K. Y. & Heenan, D. P. (2005). The effects of stubble burning and tillage on soil carbon sequestration and crop productivity in southeastern Australia. Soil Use & Management 21, 427431.
Chen, H., Bai, Y. H., Wang, Q. J., Chen, F., Gao, H. W., Tullberg, J. N., Murray, J. R., Li, H. W. & Gong, Y. S. (2008). Traffic and tillage effects on wheat production on the Loess Plateau of China: 1. Crop yield and SOM. Australian Journal of Soil Research 46, 645651.
DeFries, R. S., Foley, J. A. & Asner, G. P. (2004). Land-use choices: balancing human needs and ecosystem function. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 2, 249257.
Derpsch, R., Friedrich, T., Kassam, K. & Hongwen, L. (2010). Current status of adoption of no-till farming in the world and some of its main benefits. International Journal of Agriculture, Biology and Engineering 3, 125.
DeVita, P., Dipaolo, E., Fecondo, G., Difonzo, N. & Pisante, M. (2007). No-tillage and conventional tillage effects on durum wheat yield, grain quality and soil moisture content in southern Italy. Soil and Tillage Research 92, 6978.
Dick, W. A. & Durkalski, J. T. (1998). No-tillage agriculture and carbon sequestration in a Typic Fragiudalf soil of northeastern Ohio. In Management of Carbon Sequestration in Soil (Ed. Lal, R.), pp. 5971. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Dobermann, A. & Fairhurst, T. H. (2002). Rice straw management. Better Crops International 16 (Special Supp), 79. Available from: http://www.ipni.net/publication/bci.nsf/issue/BC-INT-2002-3 (verified 15 February 2016).
Erenstein, O. (2009). Zero Tillage in the Rice–Wheat Systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains: a Review of Impacts and Sustainability Implications. IFPRI Discussion Paper 00916 November 2009. 2020 Vision Initiative. Washington, DC: IFPRI.
Erenstein, O. & Laxmi, V. (2008). Zero tillage impacts in India's rice–wheat systems: a review. Soil and Tillage Research 100, 114.
Erenstein, O., Farooq, U., Malik, R. K. & Sharif, M. (2008). On–farm impacts of zero tillage wheat in South Asia's rice–wheat systems. Field Crops Research 105, 240252.
FAO (1988). Soil Map of the World. Revised legend. Reprinted with corrections. World Soil Resources Report 60. Rome: FAO.
Fernández-Ugalde, O., Virto, I., Bescansa, P., Imaz, M. J., Enrique, A. & Karlen, D. L. (2009). No-tillage improvement of soil physical quality in calcareous, degradation-prone, semiarid soils. Soil and Tillage Research 106, 2935.
Foley, J. A., Defries, R., Asner, G. P., Barford, C., Bonan, G., Carpenter, S. R., Chapin, F. S., Coe, M. T., Daily, G. C., Gibbs, H. K., Helkowski, J. H., Holloway, T., Howard, E. A., Kucharik, C. J., Monfreda, C., Patz, J. A., Prentice, I. C., Ramankutty, N. & Snyder, P. K. (2005). Global consequences of land use. Science 309, 570574.
Franzluebbers, A. J. (2002 a). Soil organic matter stratification ratio as an indicator of soil quality. Soil and Tillage Research 66, 95106.
Franzluebbers, A. J. (2002 b). Water infiltration and soil structure related to organic matter and its stratification with depth. Soil and Tillage Research 66, 197205.
Gathala, M. K., Ladha, J. K., Saharawat, Y. S., Kumar, V., Kumar, V. & Sharma, P. K. (2011). Effect of tillage and crop establishment methods on physical properties of a medium-textured soil under a seven-year rice–wheat rotation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 75, 18511862.
Gathala, M. K., Kumar, V., Sharma, P. C., Saharawat, Y. S., Jat, H. S., Singh, M., Kumar, A., Jat, M. L., Humphreys, E., Sharma, D. K., Sharma, S. & Ladha, J. K. (2013). Optimizing intensive cereal-based cropping systems addressing current and future drivers of agricultural change in the northwestern Indo-Gangetic Plains of India. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 177, 8597.
Gathala, K., Timsina, J., Islam, M. S., Rahman, M. M., Hossain, M. I., Harun-Ar-Rashid, M., Ghosh, A. K., Krupnik, T. J., Tiwari, T. P. & McDonald, A. (2015). Conservation agriculture based tillage and crop establishment options can maintain farmers’ yields and increase profits in South Asia's rice–maize systems: evidence from Bangladesh. Field Crops Research 172, 8598.
Ghani, A., Dexter, M. & Perrott, W. K. (2003). Hot-water extractable carbon in soils: a sensitive measurement for determining impacts of fertilization, grazing and cultivation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 35, 12311243.
Ghimire, R., Adhikari, K. R., Chen, Z-S., Shah, S. C. & Dahal, K. R. (2012). Soil organic carbon sequestration as affected by tillage, crop residue, and nitrogen application in rice–wheat rotation system. Paddy and Water Environment 10, 95102.
Gonzalez-Sanchez, E. J., Ordonez-Fernandez, R., Carbonell-Bojollo, R., Veroz-Gonzalez, O. & Gil-Ribes, J. A. (2012). Meta-analysis on atmospheric carbon capture in Spain through the use of conservation agriculture. Soil and Tillage Research 122, 5260.
Govaerts, B., Mezzalama, M., Unno, Y., Sayre, K. D., Luna–Guido, M., Vanherck, K., Dendooven, L. & Deckers, J. (2007). Influence of tillage, residue management, and crop rotation on soil microbial biomass and catabolic diversity. Applied Soil Ecology 37, 1830.
Gupta, R. & Seth, A. (2007). A review of resource conserving technologies for sustainable management of the rice–wheat cropping systems of the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP). Crop Protection 26, 436447.
Hammel, J. E. (1995). Long-term tillage and crop rotation effects on winter wheat production in Northern Idaho. Agronomy Journal 87, 1622.
Hao, X., Chang, C., Conner, R. L. & Bergen, P. (2001). Effect of minimum tillage and crop sequence on crop yield and quality under irrigation in a southern Alberta clay loam soil. Soil and Tillage Research 59, 4555.
Hassan, A. E., Kitamura, Y., Ahmed, E. S., Samir, G. & Irshad, M. (2005). Effect of irrigation schedules and tillage system on rice productivity and soil physical characteristics: a case study in the North Nile Delta. Egypt. In Transactions of the 19th International Congress on Irrigation and Drainage, Beijing, China, 10–18 September, 2005, Vol–1A. Improving Water and Land Management for Increasing Efficiency in Irrigated Agriculture, pp. 119. New Delhi, India: ICID.
Havlin, J. L., Kissel, D. E., Maddux, L. D., Claassen, M. M. & Long, J. H. (1990). Crop rotation and tillage effects on soil organic carbon and nitrogen. Soil Science Society of America Journal 54, 448452.
Haynes, R. J. (2005). Labile organic matter fractions as central components of the quality of agricultural soils: an overview. Advances in Agronomy 85, 221268.
He, J., Kuhn, N. J., Zhang, X. M., Zhang, X. R. & Li, H. W. (2009). Effects of 10 years of conservation tillage on soil properties and productivity in the farming–pastoral ecotone of Inner Mongolia, China. Soil Use and Management 25, 201209.
Hemmat, A. & Eskandari, I. (2004). Conservation tillage practices for winter wheat–fallow farming in the temperate continental climate of northwestern Iran. Field Crops Research 89, 123133.
Hernanz, J. L., López, R., Navarrete, L. & Sánchez-Girón, V. (2002). Long-term effects of tillage systems and rotations on soil structural stability and organic carbon stratification in semiarid central Spain. Soil and Tillage Research 66, 129141.
Hiremath, S. M. & Patel, Z. G. (1998). Effect of winter green manuring and nitrogen application on summer rice (Oryza sativa). Indian Journal of Agronomy 43, 7176.
Holland, J. M. (2004). The environmental consequences of adopting conservation tillage in Europe: reviewing the evidence. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 103, 125.
Huq, S. M. I. & Shoaib, J. U. M. (2013). The Soils of Bangladesh. The World Soils Book Series 1. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science + Business Media.
Husnjak, S., Filipovic, D. & Kosutic, S. (2002). Influence of different tillage systems on soil physical properties and crop yield. Rostlinná Výroba 48, 249254.
Ishaq, M., Ibrahim, M. & Lal, R. (2001). Tillage effect on nutrient uptake by wheat and cotton as influenced by fertilizer rate. Soil and Tillage Research 62, 4153.
Islam, A. K. M. S., Haque, M. E., Hossain, M. M., Saleque, M. A. & Bell, R. W. (2010). Water and fuel saving technologies: Unpuddled bed and strip tillage for wet season rice cultivation in Bangladesh. In Soil Solutions for a Changing World: Proceedings of the 19th World Congress of Soil Science, 1–6 August 2010, Brisbane, Australia (Eds Gilkes, R. J. & Prakongkep, N.), pp. 169172. Published on DVD. Crawley, UK: International Union of Soil Sciences.
Islam, A. K. M. S., Hossain, M. M., Saleque, M. A., Rabbani, M. A. & Sarker, R. I. (2013). Energy consumption in unpuddled transplanting of wet season rice cultivation in North West region of Bangladesh. Progressive Agriculture 24, 229237.
Jackson, M. L. (1973). Soil Chemical Analysis. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
Jahiruddin, M. & Satter, M. A. (2010). Agricultural Research Priority: Vision-2030 and Beyond, Sub-Sector: Land and Soil Resource Management. Final Report. Dhaka, Bangladesh: BARC.
Jenkinson, D. S. & Powlson, D. S. (1976). The effects of biocidal treatments on metabolism in soil. A method for measuring soil biomass. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 8, 209213.
Karim, Z., Rahman, S. M., Ali, M. I. & Karim, A. J. M. S. (1988). Soil Bulk Density: A Manual for Determination of Soil Physical Parameters. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Soils and Irrigation Division, BARC.
Khan, M. S., Rahman, M. M., Begum, R. A., Alam, M. K., Mondol, A. T. M. A. I., Islam, M. S. & Salahin, N. (2008). Research Experiences with Problem Soils of Bangladesh. Joydebpur, Gazipur, Bangladesh: BARI, Soil Science Division.
Khurshid, K., Iqbal, M., Arif, M. S. & Nawaz, A. (2006). Effect of tillage and mulch on soil physical properties and growth of maize. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 8, 593596.
Kropff, M. J., Williams, R. L., Horie, T., Angus, J. F., Singh, U., Centeno, H. G. & Cassman, K. G. (1994). Predicting yield potential of rice in different environments. In Proceedings of the Conference. Temperate Rice–Achievements and Potential, Vol. 2 (Eds Humphreys, E., Murray, E. A., Clampett, W. S. & Lewin, L. G.), pp. 657663. Yanco, NSW: NSW Agriculture.
Kulakova, H. N., Suturin, A. N., Antonenko, A. M., Boik, S. M. & Paradina, L. F. (1996). Organo-mineral composts from the wastes of the pulp and paper industry and their effect on soil fertility. Eurasian Soil Science 29, 836840.
Kumar, V., Saharawat, Y. S., Gathala, M. K., Jat, A. S., Singh, S. K., Chaudhary, N. & Jat, M. L. (2013). Effect of different tillage and seeding methods on energy use efficiency and productivity of wheat in the Indo-–Gangetic Plains. Field Crops Research 142, 18.
Lal, R. (1993). Tillage effects on soil degradation, soil resilience, soil quality, and sustainability. Soil and Tillage Research 27, 18.
Lal, R. & Stewart, B. A. (2013). Principles of Sustainable Soil Management in Agroecosystems. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Li, W., Liu, X., Qiao, H., Sun, J. & Duan, D. (2004). Two phase tillage: quick method for crop production in saline soils. Agrifood Research Report 68, 6672.
Mandal, K. G., Misra, A. K., Hati, K. M., Bandyopadhyay, K. K., Ghosh, P. K. & Mohanty, M. (2004). Rice residue: management options and effects on soil properties and crop productivity. Food, Agriculture and Environment 2, 224231.
Meenakshi, G., Amarjit, S. B., Sharma, B. C., Kachroo, D. & Bharat, R. (2007). Productivity, nutrient uptake and economics of wheat (Triticum aestivum) under various tillage and fertilizer management practices. Indian Journal of Agronomy 52, 127130.
Mohammad, W., Shah, Z., Shah, S. M. & Iqbal, M. M. (2003). Rotational benefits of legumes to subsequent rain-fed wheat in a low n soil. Pakistan Journal of Soil Science 22, 1927.
Mohammad, W., Shah, Z., Shah, S. M. & Shehzadi, S. (2008). Response of irrigated and N-fertilized wheat to legume–cereal and cereal–cereal rotation. Soil and Environment 27, 148154.
Moslehuddin, A. Z. M., Hussain, M. S., Saheed, S. M. & Egashira, K. (1999). Clay mineral distribution in correspondence with agro–ecological regions of Bangladesh soils. Clay Science 11, 8394.
Munoz, A., Lopez-Pineiro, A. & Ramirez, M. (2007). Soil quality attributes of conservation management regimes in a semi-arid region of south western Spain. Soil and Tillage Research 95, 155265.
Oliveira, M. T. & Merwin, I. A. (2001). Soil physical conditions in a New York orchard after eight years under different groundcover management systems. Plant and Soil 234, 233237.
Parker, M. M. & Lear, D. H. V. (1996). Soil heterogeneity and Root distribution of mature loblolly pine stands in piedmont soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 60, 1920.
Piovanelli, C., Gamba, C., Brandi, G., Simonini, S. & Batistoni, E. (2006). Tillage choices affect biochemical properties in the soil profile. Soil and Tillage Research 90, 8492.
Rahman, M. M. & Ranamukhaarachchi, S. L. (2003). Fertility status and possible environmental consequences of Tista Floodplain soils in Bangladesh. Thammasat International Journal of Science & Technology 8, 1119.
Rahman, S. M. & Islam, A. (1998). Water transmission properties of two Bangladesh soils as affected by tillage depths. Soil water flux and hydraulic conductivity. AMA Research 10, 307312.
Rahman, M. M., Islam, A. M., Azirun, S. M. & Boyce, A. N. (2014). Tropical legume crop rotation and nitrogen fertilizer effects on agronomic and nitrogen efficiency of rice. The Scientific World Journal Article 2014, Article ID 490841. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/490841
Ray, D. K., Ramankutty, N., Mueller, N. D., West, P. C. & Foley, J. A. (2012). Recent patterns of crop yield growth and stagnation. Nature Communications 3, Article number 1293. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2296
Ryan, J., Harris, H. & Matar, A. (1992). Soil and plant nitrogen studies in the two-course wheat rotation. In ICARDA, Farm Resource Management Program, Annual Report 1992, pp. 8591. Aleppo, Syria: ICARDA.
Sainju, U. M., Senwo, Z. N., Nyakatawa, E. Z., Tazisong, I. A. & Reddy, K. C. (2008). Tillage, cropping systems, and nitrogen fertilizer source effects on soil carbon sequestration and fractions. Journal of Environmental Quality 37, 880888.
Salahin, N., Alam, M. K., Islam, M. M., Naher, L. & Majid, N. M. (2013). Effects of green manure crops and tillage practice on maize and rice yields and soil properties. Australian Journal Crop Science 7, 19011911.
Saunders, D. A. & Hettel, G. P. (1994). Wheat in Heat-stressed Environments: Irrigated, Dry Areas and Rice–Wheat Farming Systems. Mexico DF: CIMMYT.
Schuurman, A. & Goedewaagen, B. (1971). Methods for the Examination of Root Systems and Roots. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Pudoc.
Shah, Z., Ahmad, S. R. & Rahman, H. (2011). Sustaining rice–wheat system through management of legumes: I. Effect of green manure legumes on rice yields and soil quality. Pakistan Journal Botany 43, 15691574.
Singh, A. & Kaur, J. (2012). Impact of conservation tillage on soil properties in rice wheat cropping system. Agricultural Science Research Journal 2, 3041.
Singh, P. K. & Singh, Y. (1996). Effect of reduced tillage on soil properties, root growth and grain yield in rice–wheat system. Indian Journal Agricultural Research 30, 179185.
Singh, A., Phogat, V. K., Dahiya, R. & Batra, S. D. (2014). Impact of long-term zero till wheat on soil physical properties and wheat productivity under rice–wheat cropping system. Soil and Tillage Research 140, 98105.
So, H. B., Grabski, A. & Desborough, P. (2009). The impact of 14 years of conventional and no–till cultivation on the physical properties and crop yields of a loam soil at Grafton NSW, Australia. Soil and Tillage Research 104, 180184.
Soil Survey Staff (1951). Soil Survey Manual. U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook no. 18. Washington, DC: USDA.
Son, D. & Lee, Y. H. (2011). Effects of no–tillage rice cover crop cropping systems on rice root growth. Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertility 44, 375379. (In Korean)
Sonnleitner, R., Lorbeer, E. & Schinner, F. (2003). Effects of straw, vegetable oil and whey on physical and microbiological properties of a chernozem. Applied Soil Ecology 22, 195204.
SRDI (2005). Bhumi and Mrittika Sampad Bhavohar Nirdeshika. Gazipur Sadar Upazila, Gazipur Zila: Bangladesh: Soil Resource Development Institute. Ministry of Agriculture, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh (in Bangla).
Steel, R. G. D. & Torrie, J. H. (1980). Principles and Procedures of Statistics. A Biometrical Approach, 2nd edn. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Sultani, M. I., Gill, M. A., Anwar, M. M. & Athar, M. (2007). Evaluation of soil physical properties as influenced by various green manuring legumes and phosphorus fertilization under rain fed conditions. International Journal of Environment Science and Technology 4, 109118.
Sur, H. S., Sidhu, A. S., Singh, R., Aggarwal, G. C. & Sandhu, K. S. (1993). Long–term effect of green manuring on soils physical properties and production potential in green manure–maize–wheat sequence. Annals of Agricultural Research 14, 125131.
Tabaglio, V., Gavazzi, C. & Menta, C. (2009). Physico-chemical indicators and microarthropod communities as influenced by no-till, conventional tillage and nitrogen fertilisation after four years of continuous maize. Soil and Tillage Research 10, 135142.
Trostle, R. (2008). Global Agricultural Supply and Demand: Factors Contributing to the Recent Increase in Food Commodity Prices. Washington, DC: USDA.
Unger, P. W. (1992). Infiltration of simulated rainfall: tillage system and crop residue effects. Soil Science Society of America Journal 56, 283289.
Unger, P. W. & Jones, O. R. (1998). Long–term tillage and cropping systems affect bulk density and penetration resistance of soil cropped to dry land wheat and grain sorghum. Soil and Tillage Research 45, 3957.
Varsa, E. C., Chong, S. K., Abolagi, J. O., Farquhar, A. J. & Olsen, F. J. (1998). Effect of deep tillage on soil physical characteristics and corn root growth and productions. Soil and Tillage Research 61, 816817.
Videnovic, Z., Simic, M., Srdic, J. & Dumanovic, Z. (2011). Long term effects of different soil tillage systems on maize (Zea mays L.) yields. Plant, Soil and Environment 57, 186192.
Voroney, R. P. & Paul, E. A. (1984). Determination of Kc and Kn in situ for calibration of the chloroform–incubation method. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 16, 914.
Wall, P. (1998). Pequeñas Propiedades y la Cero Labranza. Una visión general de avances y limitaciones. In Curso Internacional sobre Cero Labranza en Pequeñas Propiedades; Chillan, Chile; 4–8 May 1998, pp. 116. Chillan, Chile: INIA/PROCISUR.
Weatherbase (2013). Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Dhaka, Bangladesh. Great Falls, VA: CantyMedia. Available from: http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=32914&cityname=Dhaka-Bangladesh (verified 2 March 2016).
Wilkins, D. E., Siemens, M. C. & Albrecht, S. L. (2002). Changes in soil physical characteristics during transition from intensive tillage to direct seeding. Transactions of the ASAE 45, 877880.
Wuest, S. B., Williams, J. D. & Gollany, H. T. (2006). Tillage and perennial grass effects on ponded infiltration for seven semi–arid loess soils. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 61, 218223.
Yadvinder-Singh, , Khind, C. S. & Bijay-Singh, (1991). Efficient management of leguminous green manures in wetland rice. Advances in Agronomy 45, 135189.
Zhu, L., Hu, N., Yang, M., Zhan, X. & Zhang, Z. (2014). Effects of different tillage and straw return on soil organic carbon in a rice–wheat rotation system. PLoS ONE 9, e88900. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088900.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed