Skip to main content Accessibility help

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) micro-imaging of stems of Linum usitatissimum

  • G. J. McDougall (a1), B. A. Goodman (a1) and J. A. Chudek (a2)


Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) micro-imaging techniques have been employed to study noninvasively the spatial distribution of mobile protons (1H) around the cotyledonary node of flax (Linum usitatissimum) plants of two differing growth morphologies. The gross anatomy of the tissues of the stem can be discerned as a result of differences in their mobile 1H contents. The technique produced excellent images of the complex changes in stem structure that occur at the point of origin of side shoots. Detailed structure within the xylem could be visualized and the presence of fibre bundles deduced as dark areas amongst tissues of higher 1H signal intensity.

As a result of the non-invasive and non-destructive nature of NMR-imaging, the images obtained have been compared to micrographs obtained by conventional histological techniques on the same plant tissue. In general, the two approaches produce comparable results, but the NMR images are influenced by the relaxation properties of the protons as well as their concentration. Paramagnetic species, such as Mn2+ ions, produce enhanced relaxation rates of protons in their vicinity and an apparent increase in proton density at short recycle times. Thus an NMR image can yield both chemical and structural information. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique over conventional histological methods are discussed.



Hide All
Bottomley, P. A., Rogers, H. A. & Foster, T. H. (1986). NMR imaging shows water distribution and transport in plant root systems in situ. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 83, 8789.
Brown, J. M., Johnson, G. A. & Kramer, P. J. (1986). In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy of changing water content in Pelargonium hortorum roots. Plant Physiology 82, 11581160.
Brown, J. M., Thomas, J. F., Coper, C. P. & Johnson, G. A. (1988). Magnetic resonance microscopy of stem tissues of Pelargonium hortorum. Botanical Gazette 149, 253259.
Connelly, A., Lohman, J. A. B., Loughman, B. C., Quiquampoix, H. & Ratcliffe, R. G. (1987). High resolution imaging of plant tissues by NMR. Journal of Experimental Botany 38, 17131723.
Eccles, C. D. & Callaghan, P. T. (1986). High-resolution imaging. The NMR microscope. Journal of Magnetic Resonance 68, 393398.
Faust, M., Liu, D., Millard, M. M. & Stutte, G. W. (1991). Bound versus free water in dormant apple buds a theory for endodormancy. HortScience 26, 887890.
Goodman, B. A. & Raynor, J. B. (1970). Electron spin resonance of transition metal complexes. Advances in Inorganic Chemistry and Radiochemistry 13, 135362.
Goodman, B. A., Williamson, B. & Chudek, J. A. (1992). Non-invasive observation of the development of fungal infection in fruit. Protoplasma 166, 107109.
Henderson, C. (1989). Aminoalkylsilane: an inexpensive, simple preparation for slide adhesion. Journal of Histo-technology 12, 123124.
Jenner, C. F., Xia, Y., Eccles, C. D. & Callaghan, P. T. (1988). Circulation of water within wheat grain revealed by nuclear magnetic resonance micro-imaging. Nature 336, 399402.
Mcdougall, G. J. (1991). Cell-wall-associated peroxidases and lignification during growth of flax fibres. Journal of Plant Physiology 139, 182186.
O'brien, T. P. & Mccully, M. E. (1981). The Study of Plant Structure: Principles and Selected Methods. Melbourne, Australia: Termarcarphi Pty.
Omasa, K., Onoe, M. & Yamada, H. (1985). NMR imaging for measuring root systems and soil water content. Environmental Control Biology 23, 99102.
Sarafis, V., Rumpel, H., Pope, J. & Kuhn, W. (1990). Noninvasive histochemistry of plant materials by magnetic resonance microscopy. Protoplasma 159, 7073.
Shaw, D. (1988). The fundamental principles of nuclear magnetic resonance. In Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Principles, Methodology and Applications (Eds Wehrli, F. W., Shaw, D. & Kneeland, J. B.), pp. 136. New York: VCH Publishers.
Wang, C. Y. & Wang, P. C. (1989). Non-destructive detection of core breakdown in ‘Bartlett’ pears with nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Horticultural Science 24, 106109.
Warmund, M., Brown, J., Schaffer, K. & Barritt, B. (1990). Magnetic resonance imaging of incompatible graft unions of ‘Mark’ apple rootstock. Abstract of The Proceedings of the XXII International Horticultural Congress, Firenze (Italy), 27 August to 1 September, p. 186.
Wehrli, F. W., Shaw, D. & Kneeland, J. B. (1988). Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Principles, Methodology and Applications. New York: VCH Publishers.
Williamson, B., Goodman, B. A., & Chudek, J. A. (1992). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) micro-imaging of ripening red raspberry fruits. New Phytologist 120, 2128.
Woods, R. T., Hennessy, J. J., Kwok, E. & Hammer, B. E. (1989). NMR microscopy-a new biological tool. Bio-techniques 7, 616622.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) micro-imaging of stems of Linum usitatissimum

  • G. J. McDougall (a1), B. A. Goodman (a1) and J. A. Chudek (a2)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.