Genetic diversity in four local Greek cabbage open-pollinated populations was investigated using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) DNA markers in 18 individual plants from each population. A total of 24 random primers detected 90 polymorphic bands in the four populations studied, with an average of 3·75 bands/primer. The mean between-population differentiation was close to 40%, leaving 60% for within-population diversity. The individual plants were grouped, based on the Jaccard coefficient, by clustering (Unweighted Pair Group Method and Arithmetic Average – UPGMA) and an ordination (Principal Coordinates Analysis – PCO) methods, resulting in 7 and 6 groups, respectively. In general, there was a notable similarity in the grouping of the individuals with these two methods. In addition, Nei's standard genetic distance between populations, as calculated on the basis of within-population gene frequencies, was employed to group the populations by the UPGMA method. Clustering results were in good agreement with previously reported results based on morphological descriptors applied to the same populations. It was concluded that RAPD markers could be exploited as alternative or supplementary tools to already established methods for the evaluation and classification of cabbage genetic resources.