An isotope dilution method using [U-13C]glucose and a glucose clamp approach were applied to determine the effects of supplemental chromium (Cr) and heat exposure on blood glucose metabolism and tissue responsiveness and sensitivity to insulin in sheep. The sheep consumed diets with either 0 or 1 mg of Cr/kg (Control and +Cr diet, respectively) from high-Cr-yeast, and were exposed from a thermoneutral environment (20 °C) to a hot environment (30 °C) for 5 days. Blood glucose turnover rate did not differ between the diets, and was lower (P < 0·05) during heat exposure than in the thermoneutral environment. The maximal glucose infusion rate (tissue responsiveness to insulin) tended to be lower (P = 0·06) for the +Cr diet than for the Control diet, but did not change with heat exposure. The plasma insulin concentration at half maximal glucose infusion rate (tissue sensitivity to insulin) did not differ between the diets, and was greater (P < 0·05) during heat exposure than in the thermoneutral environment. No significant diet × environment interactions were observed. There was no significant evidence that Cr supplementation moderated heat stress in sheep from the measures of blood glucose metabolism and insulin action.