Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Effects of isovalerate supplementation on morphology and functional gene expression of small intestine mucosa in pre- and post-weaned dairy calves

  • Q. Liu (a1), C. Wang (a1), Y. L Zhang (a1), C. X. Pei (a1), S. L Zhang (a1), G. Guo (a1), W. J. Huo (a1) and W. Z. Yang (a1) (a2)...

Abstract

The present study evaluated the effects of isovalerate supplementation on the development of the small intestinal mucosa in dairy calves. Forty-eight Chinese Holstein bull calves at 15 days of age and 45.1 ± 0.36 kg of body weight were assigned randomly to four groups. The treatments were control, low-isovalerate, moderate-isovalerate and high-isovalerate with 0, 3, 6 and 9 g isovalerate per calf per day, respectively. The study comprised 75 days with a 15-day adaptation period followed by a 60-day sampling period. Calves were weaned at 60 days of age. Six calves were chosen from each treatment at random and slaughtered at 30 and 90 days of age. The small intestine morphology and activities of amylase and trypsin improved significantly with increasing age. No interaction between treatments and age was observed. The small intestine length, mucosa layer thickness, villus height and crypt depth increased linearly with increasing isovalerate supplementation. However, the ratio of villus height to crypt depth was not affected by treatment. Activities of amylase and trypsin increased linearly. The lactase activity increased linearly during the 75-day period and for pre-weaned calves but was unaltered for post-weaned calves. The relative mRNA expressions of growth hormone receptor, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and sodium-glucose co-transporter-1 in the small intestine mucosa increased linearly, and a similar pattern was observed for the expression of peptide transporter-1 in the duodenum and proximal jejunum. The results suggested that small intestine development was promoted by isovalerate in a dose-dependent manner.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Q. Liu, E-mail: liuqiangabc@163.com

References

Hide All
AOAC (1997) Official Methods of Analysis, 16th edn. Washington, DC, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
Baldwin, RL (1999) Sheep gastrointestinal development in response to different dietary treatments. Small Ruminant Research 35, 3947.
Bauer, ML, Harmon, DL, Bohnert, DW, Branco, AF and Huntington, GB (2001) Influence of alpha-linked glucose on sodium-glucose cotransport activity along the small intestine in cattle. Journal of Animal Science 79, 19171924.
Bühler, C, Hammon, H, Rossi, GL and Blum, JW (1998) Small intestinal morphology in eight-day-old calves fed colostrum for different durations or only milk replacer and treated with long-R3-insulin-like growth factor I and growth hormone. Journal of Animal Science 76, 758765.
Denman, SE and McSweeney, CS (2006) Development of a real-time PCR assay for monitoring anaerobic fungal and cellulolytic bacterial populations within the rumen. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 58, 572582.
Dyer, J, Barker, PJ and Shirazi-Beechey, SP (1997) Nutrient regulation of the intestinal Na+/glucose co-transporter (SGLT1) gene expression. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 230, 624629.
Flaga, J, Górka, P, Kowalski, ZM, Kaczor, U, Pietrzak, P and Zabielski, R (2012) Insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1 and IGF-2) mRNA levels in relation to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development in newborn calves. Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences 14, 605613.
Georgiev, IP, Georgieva, TM, Pfaffl, M, Hammon, HM and Blum, JW (2003) Insulin-like growth factor and insulin receptors in intestinal mucosa of neonatal calves. Journal of Endocrinology 176, 121132.
Guilloteau, P, Zabielski, R, David, JC, Blum, JW, Morisset, JA, Biernat, M, Wolinski, J, Laubitz, D and Hamon, Y (2009) Sodium butyrate as a growth promoter in milk replacer formula for young calves. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 10381049.
Hammon, HM and Blum, JW (2002) Feeding different amounts of colostrum or only milk replacer modify receptors of intestinal insulin-like growth factors and insulin in neonatal calves. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 22, 155168.
Harada, E and Kato, S (1983) Effect of short-chain fatty acids on the secretory response of the ovine exocrine pancreas. American Journal of Physiology 244, G284G290.
Jehle, PM, Fussgaenger, RD, Blum, WF, Angelus, NK, Hoeflich, A, Wolf, E and Jungwirth, RJ (1999) Differential autocrine regulation of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation by insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system component. Hormone and Metabolic Research 31, 97102.
Howarth, GS (2003) Insulin-like growth factor-1 and the gastrointestinal system: therapeutic indications and safety implications. Journal of Nutrition 133, 21092112.
Katoh, K and Tsuda, T (1984) Effects of acetylcholine and short chain fatty acids on acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas in sheep. Journal of Physiology 356, 479489.
Katoh, K and Yajima, T (1989) Effects of butyric acid and analogues on amylase release from pancreatic segments of sheep and goats. European Journal of Physiology 413, 256260.
Kreikemeier, KK, Harmon, DL, Peters, JP, Gross, KL, Armendariz, C and Krehbiel, CR (1990) Influence of dietary forage and feed intake on carbohydrase activities and small intestinal morphology of calves. Journal of Animal Science 68, 29162929.
Liu, H, Wang, L, Cao, ZJ, Li, SL and Wang, LB (2009 a) Responses of mRNA expression of PepT1 in small intestine to graded duodenal soybean small peptides infusion in lactating goats. African Journal of Biotechnology 8, 19731978.
Liu, Q, Wang, C, Huang, YX, Dong, KH, Yang, WZ, Zhang, SL and Wang, H (2009 b) Effects of isovalerate on rumen fermentation, urinary excretion of purine derivatives and digestibility in steers. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 93, 716725.
Liu, Q, Wang, C, Zhang, YL, Pei, CX, Zhang, SL, Wang, YX, Zhang, ZW, Yang, WZ, Wang, H, Guo, G and Huo, WJ (2016) Effects of isovalerate supplementation on growth performance and ruminal fermentation in pre- and post-weaning dairy calves. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 154, 14991508.
McLeod, KR and Baldwin, RL (2000) Effects of diet forage to concentrate ratio and metabolizable energy intake on visceral organ growth and in vitro oxidative capacity of gut tissues in sheep. Journal of Animal Science 78, 760770.
Misra, AK and Thakur, SS (2001) Effects of dietary supplementation of sodium salt of isobutyrate acid on ruminal fermentation and nutrient utilization in a wheat straw based low protein diets fed to crossbred cattle. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science 14, 479484.
National Research Council (2001) Nutrient requirements of young calf. In Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle, chapter 10, 7th revised edition. (ed. Subcommittee on Dairy Cattle Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition, and Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources), pp. 214-233. National Academy of Sciences: Washington, DC, USA.
Richards, CJ, Swanson, KC, Paton, SJ, Harmon, DL and Huntington, GB (2003) Pancreatic exocrine secretion in steers infused postruminally with casein and cornstarch. Journal of Animal Science 81, 10511056.
SAS (2002) User's Guide: Statistics, Version 9 Edition. Cary, NC: Statistical Analysis Systems Institute.
Shirazi-Beechey, SP, Hirayama, BA, Wang, Y, Scott, D, Smith, MW and Wright, EM (1991) Ontogenic development of lamb intestinal sodium-glucose co-transporter is regulated by diet. Journal of Physiology 437, 699708.
Siddons, RC (1968) Carbohydrase activities in the bovine digestive tract. Biochemical Journal 108, 839844.
Smith, JM, van Amburgh, ME, Diaz, MC, Lucy, MC and Bauman, DE (2002) Effect of nutrient intake on the development of the somatotropic axis and its responsiveness to GH in Holstein bull calves. Journal of Animal Science 80, 15281537.
Swanson, KC, Matthews, JC, Matthews, AD, Howell, JA, Richards, CJ and Harmon, DL (2000) Dietary carbohydrate source and energy intake influence the expression of pancreatic alpha-amylase in lambs. Journal of Nutrition 130, 21572165.
Swanson, KC, Matthews, JC, Woods, CA and Harmon, DL (2002) Postruminal administration of partially hydrolyzed starch and casein influences pancreatic α-amylase expression in calves. Journal of Nutrition 132, 376381.
Topping, DL and Clifton, PM (2001) Short-chain fatty acids and human colonic function: roles of resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Physiological Reviews 81, 10311064.
Van Soest, PJ, Robertson, JB and Lewis, BA (1991) Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 35833597.
Wang, JY (2007) Polyamines and mRNA stability in regulation of intestinal mucosal growth. Amino Acids 33, 241252.
Wang, YH, Xu, M, Wang, FN, Yu, ZP, Yao, JH, Zan, LS and Yang, FX (2009) Effect of dietary starch on rumen and small intestine morphology and digesta pH in goats. Livestock Science 122, 4852.
Zitnan, R, Kuhla, S, Nurnberg, K, Schonhusen, U, Ceresnakova, Z, Sommer, A, Baran, M, Greserova, G and Voigt, J (2003) Influence of the diet on the morphology of ruminal and intestinal mucosa and on intestinal carbohydrate levels in cattle. Veterinary Medicine-Czech 48, 177182.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed