Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Dry-matter intake of Hereford and first-cross cows measured by controlled release of chromic oxide on three pasture systems

  • R. Barlow (a1), K. J. Ellis (a1), P. J. Williamson (a1), P. Costigan (a1), P. D. Stephenson (a1), G. Rose (a1) and P. T. Mears (a1)...

Summary

Faecal output of 287 beef cows consisting of Hereford (H × H), Simmental × Hereford (S × H), Friesian × Hereford (F × H) and Brahman × Hereford (B × H) breeding was estimated using controlled release of chromic oxide (Cr2O3). All cows were from 6 to 10 years of age and had grazed on one of three pasture systems in the subtropics of New South Wales since they were 7–8 months of age. These pastures were designated as being of high, medium and low nutritive value. Faecal organic matter output (FOMO) was estimated in each of four periods (early lactation, mid lactation, late lactation, and non-lactating) during one annual production cycle.

Herbage mass exceeded 2 t/ha on all pasture systems, but estimates of organic-matter digestibility, nitrogen content and pasture composition indicated large differences in pasture quality (high > medium > low). Live weight of cows averaged 604, 488 and 393 kg live weight on the high, medium and low pastures, respectively. There were significant differences in live weight between genotypes on the medium (B × H > F × H and H × H) and low (S × H ≡ F × H ≡ B × H > H × H) pastures but not on the high pasture).

FOMO and dry-matter intake (DMI) differed significantly between genotypes among lactating cows on all pasture systems. Rankings on high pastures were reasonably consistent in all periods: S × H ≡ F × H ≥ B × H ≥ H × H, as were those on low pastures, B × H ≥ S × H ≡ F × H ≥ H × H. Differences on medium pastures were significant only during mid-lactation when B × H ≡ S × H ≡ F × H > H × H. Significant differences between genotypes were observed among non-lactating cows on high pastures only, where H × H ≡ S × H ≡ F × H > B × H. Lactating females had significantly higher FOMO and DMI than non-lactating females when compared across genotypes during early lactation on all pastures.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Alexander, R. H. & McGowan, M. (1961). A filtration procedure for the in vitro determination of digestibility of herbage. Journal of the British Grassland Society 16, 275277.
Barlow, R., Ellis, K. J. & Williamson, P. J. (1987). Estimated efficiency of crossbred and straightbred cows at pasture. 4th Animal Science Congress of the Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies. Hamilton, New Zealand, 1–6 02 1987, p. 329.
Barlow, R. & O'Neill, G. H. (1978). Performance of Hereford and crossbred Hereford cattle in the subtropics of New South Wales. Growth of first-cross calves to weaning. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 29, 13131324.
Barlow, R. & O'Neill, G. H. (1980). Performance of Hereford and crossbred Hereford cattle in the subtropics of New South Wales: genetic analyses of preweaning performance of first-cross calves. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 31, 417427.
Bird, P. R., Watson, M. J., Cayley, J. W. D. & Flinn, P. C. (1984). Some new approaches to the determination of pasture intake by cattle. In Ruminant Physiology, Concepts and Consequences. Proceedings of a Symposium held at University of Western Australia 7–10 05 1984, pp. 205216.
Chacon, E. & Stobbs, T. H. (1976). Influence of progressive defoliation of a grass sward on the eating behaviour of cattle. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 27, 709729.
Cohen, R. D. H. (1978). The nutrition and production of beef cattle in a sub-tropical environment. Ph.D. dissertation, University of New England, Armidale, N.S.W.
Corbett, J. L. (1981). Measurement of the forage intake of grazing animals. In Forage Evaluation: Concepts and Techniques (ed. Wheeler, J. L. and Mochrie, R. D.), pp. 287297. Armidale, N.S.W.: American Forage and Grassland Council-CSIRO.
Costigan, P. & Ellis, K. J. (1987). Analysis of faecal chromium derived from controlled release marker devices. New Zealand Journal of Technology 3, 8992.
Cundiff, L. V., Ferrell, C. L. & Jenkins, T. G. (1985). Feed requirements for maintenance and lactation of F 1 cows representing diverse biological types. Beef Research Progress Report No. 2, pp. 3132. Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Centre.
Ellis, K. J., Laby, R. H. & Burns, R. G. (1981). Continuous controlled release administration of chromic oxide to sheep. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society of Australia 6, 145.
Ellis, K. J., Laby, R. H., Costigan, P., Zirkler, K. & Choice, P. G. (1982). Continuous administration of chromic oxide to grazing cattle. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society of Australia 7, 177.
Engels, E. A. N., Malan, A. & Baard, M. A. (1974). The voluntary feed intake of dry and lactating cows on natural pasture. South African Journal of Animal Science 4, 113116.
Ferrell, C. L. & Jenkins, T. G. (1984). Energy utilisation by mature, non pregnant, nonlactating cows of different types. Journal of Animal Science 58, 234243.
Ferrell, C. L. & Jenkins, T. G. (1985). Cow type and nutritional environment: nutritional aspects. Journal of Animal Science 61, 725741.
Frisch, J. E. & Vercoe, J. E. (1977). Food intake, eating rate, weight gains, metabolic rate and efficiency of feed utilization in Bos taurus and Bos indicus crossbred cattle. Animal Production 25, 343358.
Havstad, K. M., Wagner, M. W., Kronberg, S. L., Doornbos, D. E. & Ayers, E. L. (1986). Forage intake of different beef cattle biological types under range conditions. In Montana Agsearch 3 (2), 1729. Montana Agricultural Experiment Station and State University.
Hearnshaw, H. & Barlow, R. (1982). Genotype × environment interaction in crosses among beef cattle. Proceedings of the First World Congress on Sheep and Beef Cattle Breeding, New Zealand, 3–12 11 1980, vol.1 (Technical), pp. 469474.
Hearnshaw, H. & Barlow, R. (1984). Evaluation of crossbred cattle on diverse pasture systems in N.S.W. Proceedings of the 2nd World Congress on Sheep and Beef Cattle Breeding, Pretoria, 16–19 April 1984, pp. 752756.
Hennessy, D. W. (1985). Supplementary feeding of grazing beef cattle. Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia in 1985. Proceedings of a Symposium at University of New England, Armidale, N.S.W., paper no. 3.
Hennessy, D. W. & Robinson, G. G. (1979). The herbage intake, eating behaviour and calf production of beef cows grazing improved pastures on the Northern table-lands of New South Wales. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 19, 261268.
Hennessy, D. W., Williamson, D. J., Lowe, R. F & Baigent, D. R. (1981). The role of protein supplements in nutrition of young grazing cattle and their subsequent productivity. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 96, 205212.
Holloway, J. W., Butts, W. T., Beaty, J. D., Hopper, J. T. & Hall, N. S. (1979). Forage intake and performance of lactating beef cows grazing high or low quality pastures. Journal of Animal Science 48, 692700.
Hunter, R. A. & Siebert, B. D. (1985 a). Utilization of low-quality roughage by Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle. 1. Rumen digestion. British Journal of Nutrition 53, 637648.
Hunter, R. A. & Siebert, B. D. (1985 b). Utilization of low-quality roughage by Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle. 2. The effect of rumen-degradable nitrogen and sulphur on voluntary food intake and rumen characteristics. British Journal of Nutrition 53, 649656.
Kimura, F. T. & Miller, V. I. (1957). Improved determination of chromic oxide in cow feed and faeces. Agriculture and Food Chemistry 5, 216221.
Kotb, A. R. & Luckey, T. D. (1972). Markers in nutrition. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews 42(3), 813845.
Lee, G. J., Hennessy, D. W., Williamson, P. J., Nolan, J. V., Kempton, T. J. & Leng, R. A. (1985). Responses to protein meal supplements by lactating beef cattle given a low-quality pasture hay. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 36, 729741.
Mannetje, L. T. & Haydock, K. P. (1963). The dryweight-rank method for the botanical analysis of pasture. Journal of the British Grassland Society 18, 268275.
Mears, P. T. & Humphreys, L. R. (1974). Nitrogen response and stocking rate of Penniselum clandestinum pastures. I. Pasture nitrogen requirement and concentration, distribution of dry matter and botanical composition. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 83, 451467.
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1984). Energy Allowances and Feeding Systems for Ruminants. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries for Scotland, Department of Agriculture for Northern Ireland. Reference Book 433, 85 pp.
Minson, D. J. (1980). Characteristics of the nutritionally ideal grazing plant. In Forage Evaluation: Concepts and Techniques (ed. Wheeler, J. L. and Mochrie, R. D.), pp. 543550. Armidale, N.S.W.: American Forage and Grassland Council-CSIRO.
Morgan, J. H. L. (1986). The use of crossbred cows to increase beef production per hectare. 3rd World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Lincoln, Nebraska, 07 1986, pp. 319324.
Northcote, K. H. (1971). A Factual Key for the Recognition of Australian Soils, p. 34. South Australia. Rellim Technical publications.
O'Grady, R. & Cassidy, G. J. (1976). An irrigated pasture system based on annual ryegrass sowings. Queensland Agricultural Journal 102, 39.
Osuji, P. (1974). Physiology of eating and the energy expenditure of the ruminant at pasture. Journal of Rangeland Management 27, 437443.
Stace, H. C. T., Hubble, G. D., Brewer, R., Northcote, K. H., Sleeman, J. R., Mulcahy, M. J. & Hallsworth, E. G. (1968). A Handbook of Australian Soils, pp. 136144. South Australia: Rellim Technical Publications.
Taylor, St. C. S., Thiessen, R. B. & Murray, J. (1986). Inter-breed relationship of maintenance efficiency to milk yield in cattle. Animal Production 43, 3761.
Tilley, J. M. A. & Terry, R. A. (1957). A two-stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. Journal of the British Grassland Society 18, 104111.
Vercoe, J. E. & Frisch, J. E. (1970). Digestibility and nitrogen metabolism in Brahman, Africander and Short-horn × Hereford cattle fed lucerne hay. Proceedings of the I Australian Society of Animal Production 8, 131135.
Vercoe, J. E. & Frisch, J. E. (1974). Fasting metabolism, liveweight and voluntary feed intake of different breeds of cattle. 6th Symposium on Energy Metabolism of Farm Animals, Stuttgart, Germany. Publication No. 14, pp. 131134. European Association of Animal Production.
Vercoe, J. E., Frisch, J. E. & Moran, J. B. (1972). Apparent digestibility, nitrogen utilization, water metabolism and heat tolerance of Brahman cross, Africander cross and Shorthorn × Hereford steers. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 79, 7174.
Wagner, M. W., Havstad, K. M., Doornbos, D. E. & Ayers, E. L. (1986). Forage intake of rangeland beef cows with varying degrees of crossbred influence. Journal of Animal Science 63, 14841490.
Wilson, J. R. & Minson, D. J. (1980). Prospects for improving the digestibility and intake of tropical grasses. Tropical Grasslands 14, 253259.

Dry-matter intake of Hereford and first-cross cows measured by controlled release of chromic oxide on three pasture systems

  • R. Barlow (a1), K. J. Ellis (a1), P. J. Williamson (a1), P. Costigan (a1), P. D. Stephenson (a1), G. Rose (a1) and P. T. Mears (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed