Skip to main content Accessibility help

Differential growth performance and intestinal immune gene expression in diverse genetic lines of growing chickens fed a high concentration of supplemental phytase

  • S. Q. Jiang (a1) (a2), S. J. Lamont (a1) and M. E. Persia (a1)


The objective of the current experiment was to determine the effects of high-concentration phytase (5000 FTU/kg) feeding to diverse lines of chickens fed phosphorus (P) adequate maize–soybean meal diets (4.5 g/kg non-phytate P) on the performance and intestinal immune function. Performance was measured for outbred broiler (Ross 308) and inbred Fayoumi lines over 0–21 days, and duodenum and ileum were harvested for the determination of mucin-2, interleukin (IL)-1β and IgA mRNA by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Over the 0–7-day period, there was a significant line × diet interaction, as high phytase supplementation increased broiler average daily gain (ADG), but had no effect on Fayoumi ADG. Treatment of diets with phytase increased expression of the mucin-2 gene in the duodenum mucosa. There were significant interactions between line and age, and line, diet and age on duodenal expression of the IL-1β gene as phytase supplementation of the broiler line reduced IL-1β in comparison to control fed broilers without change in the Fayoumi line. Overall, the addition of a high concentration of phytase to broilers fed adequate concentrations of non-phytate P resulted in improved growth performance early with a reduction in this effect over time. Mucosal mucin-2 expression was increased with high-concentration phytase feeding across both lines, but IL-1β mRNA expression was reduced in the duodenum of broilers fed high concentrations of phytase, suggesting that the increased performance noted might be related to decreased inflammation.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Susan J. Lamont, E-mail:


Hide All
Abasht, B, Kaiser, MG and Lamont, SJ (2008) Toll-like receptor gene expression in cecum and spleen of advanced intercross line chicks infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 123, 314323.
Angel, R, Tamim, NM, Applegate, TJ, Dhandu, AS and Ellestad, LE (2002) Phytic acid chemistry: influence on phytin-phosphorus availability and phytase efficacy. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 11, 471480.
Bozsik, A, Kokeny, S and Olah, E (2007) Molecular mechanisms for the antitumor activity of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6). Cancer Genomics & Proteomics 4, 4351.
Cheeseman, JH, Kaiser, MG and Lamont, SJ (2004) Genetic line effect on peripheral blood leukocyte cell surface marker expression in chickens. Poultry Science 83, 911916.
Cowieson, AJ and Ravindran, V (2007) Effect of phytic acid and phytase on the flow and amino acid composition of endogenous protein at the terminal ileum of growing broiler chickens. British Journal of Nutrition 98, 745752.
Cowieson, AJ, Acamovic, T and Bedford, MR (2004) The effects of phytase and phytic acid on the loss of endogenous amino acids and minerals from broiler chickens. British Poultry Science 45, 101108.
Cowieson, AJ, Acamovic, T and Bedford, MR (2006) Phytic acid and phytase: implications for protein utilization by poultry. Poultry Science 85, 878885.
Cox, CM, Sumners, LH, Kim, S, McElroy, AP, Bedford, MR and Dalloul, RA (2010) Immune responses to dietary β-glucan in broiler chicks during an Eimeria challenge. Poultry Science 89, 25972607.
dos Santos, TT, Srinongkote, S, Bedford, MR and Walk, CL (2013) Effect of high phytase inclusion rates on performance of broilers fed diets not severely limited in available phosphorus. Asian-Australasion Journal of Animal Science 26, 227232.
Eeckhout, W and De Paepe, M (1994) Total phosphorus, phytate-phosphorus and phytase activity in plant feedstuffs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 47, 1929.
Hangalapura, BN, Kaiser, MG, van der Poel, JJ, Parmentier, HK and Lamont, SJ (2006) Cold stress equally enhances in vivo pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in chicken lines divergently selected for antibody responses. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 30, 503511.
Harland, BF and Morris, ER (1995) Phytate: a good or bad food component? Nutrition Research 15, 733754.
Kaiser, MG, Cheeseman, JH, Kaiser, P and Lamont, SJ (2006) Cytokine expression in chicken peripheral blood mononuclearcells after in vitro exposure to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. Poultry Science 85, 19071911.
Klipper, E, Sklan, D and Friedman, A (2000) Immune responses of chickens to dietary protein antigens. I. Induction of systemic and intestinal immune responses following oral administration of soluble proteins in the absence of adjuvant. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 74, 209223.
Lammers, A, Wieland, WH, Kruijt, L, Jansma, A, Straetemans, T, Schots, A, den Hartog, G and Parmentier, HK (2010) Successive immunoglobulin and cytokine expression in the small intestine of juvenile chicken. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 34, 12541262.
Leutz, A, Damm, K, Sterneck, E, Kowenz, E, Ness, S, Frank, R, Gausepohl, H, Pan, YC, Smart, J, Hayman, M and Graf, T (1989) Molecular cloning of the chicken myelomonocytic growth factor (cMGF) reveals relationship to interleukin 6 and granulocyte colony stimulating factor. EMBO Journal 8, 175181.
Liu, N, Ru, YJ, Cowieson, AJ, Li, FD and Cheng, XCH (2008) Effects of phytate and phytase on the performance and immune function of broilers fed nutritionally marginal diets. Poultry Science 87, 11051111.
McKay, DM and Baird, AW (1999) Cytokine regulation of epithelial permeability and ion transport. Gut 44, 283289.
Muir, WI, Bryden, WL and Husband, AJ (2000) Immunity, vaccination and the avian intestinal tract. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 24, 325342.
NRC (1994). Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 9th rev. edn. Washington, DC, USA: National Academies Press.
Onyango, EM and Adeola, O (2012) Inositol hexaphosphate increases mucin loss from the digestive tract of ducks. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 96, 416420.
Onyango, EM, Bedford, MR and Adeola, O (2005) Efficacy of an evolved Escherichia coli phytase in diets of broiler chicks. Poultry Science 84, 248255.
Onyango, EM, Asem, EK and Adeola, O (2009) Phytic acid increases mucin and endogenous amino acid losses from the gastrointestinal tract of chickens. British Journal of Nutrition 101, 836842.
Persia, ME (2010) Effects of enzyme supplementation on intestinal environment and poultry performance. In Zimmermann, NG (ed.). Proceedings of the 8th Annual Mid-Atlantic Nutrition Conference. College Park, MD, USA: University of Maryland, pp. 108115.
Persia, ME and Saylor, WW (2006) Effects of broiler strain, dietary nonphytate phosphorus, and phytase supplementation on chick performance and tibia ash. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 15, 7281.
Pirgozliev, V and Bedford, MR (2013) Energy utilisation and growth performance of chicken fed diets containing graded levels of supplementary bacterial phytase. British Journal of Nutrition 109, 248253.
Pirgozliev, V, Oduguwa, O, Acamovic, T and Bedford, MR (2007) Diets containing Escherichia coli-derived phytase on young chickens and turkeys: effects on performance, metabolizable energy, endogenous secretions, and intestinal morphology. Poultry Science 86, 705713.
Ravindran, V, Selle, PH, Ravindran, G, Morel, PCH, Kies, AK and Bryden, WL (2001) Microbial phytase improves performance, apparent metabolizable energy, and ileal amino acid digestibility of broilers fed a lysine-deficient diet. Poultry Science 80, 338344.
Redmond, SB, Tell, RM, Coble, D, Mueller, C, Palić, D, Andreasen, CB and Lamont, SJ (2010) Differential splenic cytokine responses to dietary immune modulation by diverse chicken lines. Poultry Science 89, 16351641.
Ribeiro, V Jr, Salguero, SC, Gomes, G, Barros, VRSM, Silva, DL, Barreto, SLT, Rostagno, HS, Hannas, MI and Albino, LFT (2016). Efficacy and phosphorus equivalency values of two bacterial phytases (Escherichia coli and Citrobacter braakii) allow the partial reduction of dicalcium phosphate added to the diets of broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days of age. Animal Feed Science and Technology 221, 226233.
Sandberg, AS (2002) Bioavailability of minerals in legumes. British Journal of Nutrition 88(Suppl. 3), S281S285.
SAS Institute (2009). SAS User's Guide: Statistics. Release 8.2. Cary, NC, USA: SAS Institute Inc.
Shirley, RB and Edwards, HM Jr. (2003) Graded levels of phytase past industry standards improves broiler performance. Poultry Science 82, 671680.
Smirnov, A, Tako, E, Ferket, PR and Uni, Z (2006) Mucin gene expression and mucin content in the chicken intestinal goblet cells are affected by in ovo feeding of carbohydrates. Poultry Science 85, 669673.
Sterneck, E, Blattner, C, Graf, T and Leutz, A (1992) Structure of the chicken myelomonocytic growth factor gene and specific activation of its promoter in avian myelomonocytic cells by protein kinases. Cellular and Molecular Biology 12, 17281735.
Truong, HH, Yu, S, Moss, AF, Partridge, GG, Liu, SY and Selle, PH (2017) Phytase inclusions of 500 and 2000 FTU/kg in maize-based broiler diets impact on growth performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive dynamics of starch, protein (N), sodium and IP6 phytate degradation in the gizzard and four small intestinal segments. Animal Feed Science and Technology 223, 1322.
Vucenik, I and Shamsuddin, AM (2006) Protection against cancer by dietary IP6 and inositol. Nutrition and Cancer 55, 109125.
Watson, BC, Matthews, JO, Southern, LL and Shelton, JL (2006) The effects of phytase on growth performance and intestinal transit time of broilers fed nutritionally adequate diets and diets deficient in calcium and phosphorus. Poultry Science 85, 493497.
Wieland, WH, Orzàez, D, Lammers, A, Parmentier, HK, Verstegen, MWA and Schots, A (2004) A functional polymericimmunoglobulin receptor in chicken (Gallus gallus) indicates ancient role of secretory IgA in mucosal immunity. Biochemical Journal 380, 669676.
Ye, X, Avendano, S, Dekkers, JCM and Lamont, SJ (2006) Association of twelve immune-related genes with performance of three broiler lines in two different hygiene environments. Poultry Science 85, 15551569.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Differential growth performance and intestinal immune gene expression in diverse genetic lines of growing chickens fed a high concentration of supplemental phytase

  • S. Q. Jiang (a1) (a2), S. J. Lamont (a1) and M. E. Persia (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.