Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Bone growth in the indigenous Nigerian pigs as a function of age, sex and body weight

  • A. I. Essien (a1) and B. L. Fetuga (a1)

Summary

The left half carcasses of 64 female, 64 castrated male and 64 intact male indigenous Nigerian pigs were dissected in order to study the bone growth between birth and 672 days of age. Total bone weight as well as the weights and lengths of femur, tibia–fibula, humerus and radius–ulna were studied at 16 ages. While bone weights increased between 34 and 45 times from birth to the terminal age range, bone lengths on the average only quadrupled within the same period. Maximum growth in bone weight occurred at 112 days of age whereas bone length attained maximum growth rate at 56 days of age when the body weights had averaged 15·8 and 6·2 kg respectively.

Beyond these body weights, the growth rates declined. Although sex differences for total bone weight were not significant, the individual long bones studied exhibited significant sex differences. Highly significant age and sex influences were obtained for the relative bone weights.

The growth coefficients b determined for the individual bones and total bone using the logarithmically transformed allometric equation Y = oXb, ranged from an average of 0·76 for radius–ulna to O·80 for femur. Pooled values for total carcass bone was 0·84. The values agreed with those reported in literature with side weight as independent variable, and confirm bone to be early developing. Bone lengths were related more to body weight than to chronological age as judged by the R2 values. In all the bone traits studied, intact male pigs showed larger values than the castrated male and female pigs.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Berry, B. W., Smith, G. C., Hillers, J. K. & Kroening, G. H. (1970). Effects of chronological age on live and carcass characteristics of Yorskhire swine. Journal of Animal Science 31, 856860.
Chiboka, O. (1981). The effect of age at first mating on litter characteristics in the Native Nigerian pig. Livestock Production Science 8, 155159.
Cole, D. J. A., White, M. R., Hardy, B. V. & Carr, J. R. (1976). Tissue growth in the pig. Animal Production 22, 341350.
Crouse, J. D., Ferrell, C. L. & Cundiff, L. V. (1985). Effects of sex condition, genotype and diet on bovine growth and carcass characteristics. Journal of Animal Science 60, 12191234.
Davies, A. S., Pearson, G. & Carr, J. R. (1980). The carcass composition of male, castrated male and female pigs resulting from two levels of feeding. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 95, 251259.
Doornenbal, H. (1975). Growth, development and chemical composition of the pig. III. Bone, ash and moisture. Growth 39, 427434.
Endeley, H. N. L. (1979). Reproductive performance and growth studies on intensively managed indigenous Nigerian pigs from birth to 36 weeks. Ph.D. thesis, University of Ibadan.
Essien, A. I. (1983). Growth studies in the indigenous Nigerian pig. Ph.D. thesis, University of Ibadan.
Fetuga, B. L., Babatunde, G. M., Olabisi, E. O. & Oyenuga, V. A. (1977). Comparative responses of Large White × Landrace and the indigenous Nigerian pigs to diets of varying protein concentration. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production 4, 181204.
Fetuga, B. L., Babatunde, G. M. & Oyenuga, V. A. (1976). Comparative physical characteristics in the indigenous Nigerian and imported European pigs. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production 3, 7487.
Fortin, A. (1982). Carcass composition of Yorkshire barrows and gilts slaughtered between 85 and 112 kg body weight. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 62, 6976.
Garsd, A., Goldman, M. & Rosenblatt, L. S. (1981). The prediction of skeletal mass in growing and adult beagles. Growth 45, 2941.
Goenaga, P. R. & Carden, A. E. (1979). A comparison of tissue weight distribution in Landraee, Hampshire and Duroc Jersey pigs. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 93, 271280.
Hammond, J. (1933). Pigs for Pork and Pigs for Bacon, 15 pp. Royal Agricultural Society of England.
Hammond, J. (1960). Farm Animals. London: Edward Arnold.
Hammond, J. (1961). Growth in size and body proportions in farm animals. In Growth in Living Systems (ed. Zarrow, M. X.), pp. 321334. New York: Basic Books.
Hegarty, P. V. J., Gundlach, L. C. & Allen, C. E. (1973). Comparative growth of porcine muscles using an indirect prediction of muscle fibre number. Growth 37, 333344.
Huxley, J. S. (1932). Problems of Relative Growth, London: Methuen.
Joubert, D. M. (1956). An analysis of factors influencing postnatal growth and development of the muscle fibre. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 47, 59102.
Knudson, B. K., Hogberg, M. G., Merkel, R. A., Allen, R. E. & Magee, W. T. (1985). Developmental comparisons of boars and barrows. II. Body composition and bone development. Journal of Animal Science 61, 797801.
McMeekan, C. P. (1940). Growth and development in the pig with special reference to carcass quality characters. 2. The influence of the plane of nutrition on growth and development. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 30, 387436.
Prescott, J. H. D. & Lamming, G. E. (1967). The influence of castration on the growth of male pigs in relation to high levels of dietary protein. Animal Production 9, 535540.
Richmond, R. J. & Berg, R. T. (1972). Bone growth and distribution in swine as influenced by liveweight, breed, sex and ration. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 52, 4756.
Somade, B. (1987). Growth and sexual development of indigenous West African boars. Beitrage zur tropischen Landwirtschafl und Veterinarmedizin 25, 103109.
Steel, R. G. D. & Torrie, J. H. (1960). Principles and Procedures of Statistics. New York.
Stewart, D. M. (1972). The role of tension in muscle growth. In Regulation of organ and tissue growth (ed. Goss, R. J.), pp. 77100. New York: Academic Press.
Wood, J. D., Macfie, H. J. H., Pomeroy, R. W. & Twinn, D. J. (1980). Carcass composition in four sheep breeds: The importance of type of breed and stage of maturity. Animal Production 30, 135152.
Wynn, P. C. & THwaites, C. J. (1981). The relative growth and development of the carcass tissues of Merino and crossbred rams and wethers. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 32, 947956.

Bone growth in the indigenous Nigerian pigs as a function of age, sex and body weight

  • A. I. Essien (a1) and B. L. Fetuga (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.