International agricultural trade has evolved over time. Processed foods and developing countries have become major growth markets for U.S. agricultural exports, and foreign direct investment (FDI) has become even more important than exports as a means of accessing foreign markets. The critical question is whether FDI is a substitute for or a complement of exports. This research builds upon an existing theoretical FDI model and contributes to the literature through the development of a simultaneous equation system for FDI and exports, which is estimated using two-stage least squares. Empirical analyses were used to examine the relationship between U.S. FDI and exports of processed foods into East Asian countries-China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan-from 1989 to 1998. The results indicated a complementary relationship between FDI and exports. Additionally, these results indicated that interest rates, exchange rates, gross domestic product (GDP), and compensation rates are important variables that influence U.S. FDI in East Asian countries, while GDP, exchange rates, and export prices are important export determinants.