Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-55wx7 Total loading time: 0.351 Render date: 2021-02-28T10:49:13.408Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

How do Citizens in East Asian Democracies Understand Left and Right?

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 February 2011

WILLY JOU
Affiliation:
Department of Political Science, Kansai Universityjouw@uci.edu
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Both general publics and elites have long used labels of left and right as cues for political communication and vote choice in Western democracies. This study examines the utility of these spatial semantics as means of encapsulating major political cleavages in East Asian democracies. Through analysis of public opinion surveys, we investigate the influence of organizational affiliation; views on socio-economic, religious, and ‘new politics’ issues, as well as attitudes toward the political system, as anchors of public understanding of the left–right dimension in Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, and Taiwan. Patterns found in these countries are compared with two ‘Western’ nations in the region, Australia and New Zealand. Results show that citizens’ left–right positions in Japan and the Australasian countries are more clearly structured by well-defined cleavages, such as socio-economic issues and post-materialism, and that parties in these countries compete on the basis of clearer ideological profiles. In contrast, despite high rates of cognition of the left–right scale in South Korea, the Philippines, and Taiwan, left–right orientations are less firmly anchored in attitudes and policy preferences. These differences in publics’ level of ideological conceptualization are likely related to party system development and democratic experience.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2011

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Arian, Asher and Shamir, Michal (1983), ‘The Primary Political Function of the Left–Right Continuum’, Comparative Politics, 15: 139–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barnes, Samuel H. (1997), ‘Electoral Behavior and Comparative Politics’, in Lichbach, Mark Irving and Zuckerman, Alan S. (eds.), Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture, and Structure, New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Budge, Ian and Farlie, Dennis (1977), Voting and Party Competition: A Theoretical Critique and Synthesis Applied to Surveys from Ten Democracies, London: Wiley.Google Scholar
Converse, Philip E. (1964), ‘The Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Publics’, in Apter, David E. (ed.), Ideology and Discontent, New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Converse, Philip E. and Pierce, Roy (1986), Political Representation in France, Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coppedge, Michael (1998), ‘The Dynamic Diversity of Latin American Party Systems’, Party Politics, 4: 547–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dalton, Russell J. (1996), Citizen Politics in Western Democracies: Public Opinion and Political Parties in the United States, Great Britain, West Germany, and France, 2nd edition, Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.Google Scholar
Dalton, Russell J. (2006), ‘Social Modernization and the End of Ideology Debate: Patterns of Ideological Polarization’, Japanese Journal of Political Science, 7: 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dalton, Russell J. (2008), ‘The Quantity and the Quality of Party Systems: Party System Polarization, Its Measurement, and Its Consequences’, Comparative Political Studies, 41: 899920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dalton, Russell J. and Tanaka, Aiji (2007), ‘The Patterns of Party Polarization in East Asia’, Journal of East Asian Studies, 7: 203–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dix, Robert H. (1989), ‘Cleavage Structures and Party Systems in Latin America’, Comparative Politics, 22: 2337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Downs, Anthony (1957), An Economic Theory of Democracy, New York: Harper.Google Scholar
Erdmann, Gero (2007), ‘The Cleavage Model, Ethnicity and Voter Alignment in Africa: Conceptual and Methodological Problems Revisited’, German Institute of Global and Area Studies Working Paper No. 63.Google Scholar
Evans, Geoffrey, Heath, Anthony, and Lalljee, Mansur (1996), ‘Measuring Left–Right and Libertarian–Authoritarian Values in the British Electorate’, British Journal of Sociology, 47: 93112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evans, Geoffrey and Whitefield, Stephen (1998), ‘The Structuring of Political Cleavages in Post-Communist Societies: The Case of the Czech Republic and Slovakia’, Political Studies, 46: 115–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flanagan, Scott C. (1991), ‘Value Cleavages, Contextual Influences, and the Vote’, in Flanagan, Scott C. et al. (eds.), The Japanese Voter, New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Flanagan, Scott C. and Lee, Aie-Rie (2003), ‘The New Politics, Culture Wars, and the Authoritarian–Libertarian Value Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies’, Comparative Political Studies, 36: 235–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Franklin, Mark N. (1992), ‘The Decline of Cleavage Politics’, in Franklin, Mark N., Makie, Thomas T., and Valen, Henry (eds.), Electoral Change: Responses to Evolving Social and Attitudinal Structures in Western Countries, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Freire, André (2008), ‘Party Polarization and Citizens’ Left–Right Orientations’, Party Politics, 14: 189209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fuchs, Dieter and Klingemann, Hans-Dieter (1989), ‘The Left–Right Schema’, in Kent Jennings, M. et al. (eds.), Continuities in Political Action: A Longitudinal Study of Political Orientations in Three Western Democracies, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Gunther, Richard and Montero, José R. (2001), ‘The Anchors of Partisanship: A Comparative Analysis of Voting Behavior in Four Southern European Democracies’, in Nikiforos Diamandouros, P. and Gunther, Richard (eds.), Parties, Politics, and Democracy in the New Southern Europe, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Huber, John D. (1989), ‘Values and Partisanship in Left–Right Orientations: Measuring Ideology’, European Journal of Political Research, 17: 599621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huber, John D. and Inglehart, Ronald (1995), ‘Expert Interpretations of Party Space and Party Locations in 42 Societies’, Party Politics, 1: 73111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Inglehart, Ronald (1977), The Silent Revolution: Changing Values and Political Styles Among Western Publics, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Inglehart, Ronald (1984), ‘The Changing Structure of Political Cleavage in Western Society’, in Dalton, Russell J., Flanagan, Scott C., and Allen Beck, Paul (eds.), Electoral Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Inglehart, Ronald (1990), Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Inglehart, Ronald and Klingemann, Hans (1976), ‘Party Identification, Ideological Preference and the Left–Right Dimension among Western Mass Publics’, in Budge, Ian, Crewe, Ivor, and Farlie, Dennis (eds.), Party Identification and Beyond, London: Wiley.Google Scholar
Kitschelt, Herbert (1995a), The Radical Right in Western Europe: A Comparative Analysis, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Kitschelt, Herbert (1995b), ‘Formation of Party Cleavages in Post-Communist Democracies: Theoretical Propositions’, Party Politics, 1 (4): 447–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klingemann, Hans D. (1979), ‘Measuring Ideological Conceptualizations’, in Barnes, Samuel H. et al. , Political Action: Mass Participation in Five Western Democracies, Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
Knutsen, Oddbjørn (1989), ‘Cleavage Dimensions in Ten West European Countries’, Comparative Political Studies, 21: 495533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knutsen, Oddbjørn (1995), ‘Party Choice’, in van Deth, Jan W. and Scarbrough, Elinor (eds.), The Impact of Values, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Knutsen, Oddbjørn (1997), ‘The Partisan and the Value-based Component of Left–Right Self-placement: A Comparative Study’, International Political Science Review, 18: 191225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knutsen, Oddbjørn (1998), ‘Europeans Move Towards the Center: A Comparative Longitudinal Study of Left–Right Self-Placement in Western Europe’, International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 10: 292316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knutsen, Oddbjørn (1999), ‘Left–Right Party Polarization among the Mass Publics: A Comparative Longitudinal Study from Eight West European Countries’, in Marthe Narud, Hanne and Aalberg, Toril (eds.), Challenges to Representative Democracy: Parties, Voters and Public Opinion, Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.Google Scholar
Kriesi, Hanspeter, Grande, Edgar, Lachat, Romain, Dolezal, Martin, Bornschier, Simon, and Frey, Timotheos (2006), ‘Globalization and the Transformation of the National Political Space: Six European Countries Compared’, European Journal of Political Research, 45: 921–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kumlin, Staffan (2001), ‘Ideology-Driven Opinion Formation in Europe: The Case of Attitudes towards the Third Sector in Sweden’, European Journal of Political Research, 39: 487518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lachat, Romain (2008), ‘The Impact of Party Polarization on Ideological Voting’, Electoral Studies, 27: 687–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laponce, J. A. (1972), ‘In Search of the Stable Elements of the Left–Right Landscape’, Comparative Politics, 4: 455–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laponce, J. A. (1981), Left and Right: The Topography of Political Perceptions, Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
Lee, Aie-Rie (2007), ‘Value Cleavages, Issues, and Partisanship in East Asia’, Journal of East Asian Studies, 7: 251–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, Aie-Rie and Glasure, Yong. U. (1995), ‘Party Identifiers in South Korea’, Asian Survey, 35: 367–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lijphart, Arend, Rogowski, Ronald, and Kent Weaver, R. (1993), ‘Separation of Powers and Cleavage Management’, in Kent Weaver, R. and Rockman, Bert A. (eds.), Do Institutions Matter? Government Capabilities in the United States and Abroad, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
Lipset, Seymour Martin (1960), Political Man, Garden City, NY: Doubleday.Google Scholar
Lipset, Seymour M. and Rokkan, Stein (1967), ‘Cleavage Structures, Party Systems, and Voter Alignments: An Introduction’, in Lipset, Seymour M. and Rokkan, Stein (eds.), Party Systems and Voter Alignments: Cross-National Perspectives, New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Mainwaring, Scott and Zoco, Edurne (2007), ‘Political Sequences and the Stabilization of Interparty Competition: Electoral Volatility in Old and New Democracies’, Party Politics, 13: 155–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mair, Peter (2001), ‘The Freezing Hypothesis: An Evaluation’, in Karvonen, Lauri and Kuhnle, Stein (eds.), Party Systems and Voter Alignments Revisited, London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Mair, Peter (2007), ‘Left–Right Orientations’, in Dalton, Russell J. and Klingemann, Hans-Dieter (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Political Behavior, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
McAllister, Ian (2007), ‘Social Structure and Party Support in the East Asian Democracies’, Journal of East Asian Studies, 7: 225–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McAllister, Ian and White, Stephen (2007), ‘Political Parties and Democratic Consolidation in Post-Communist Societies’, Party Politics, 13: 197216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moreno, Alejandro (1999), Political Cleavages: Issues, Parties, and the Consolidation of Democracy, Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
Norris, Pippa (1999), ‘Introduction: The Growth of Critical Citizens?’, in Norris, Pippa (ed.), Critical Citizens: Global Support for Democratic Government, Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosas, Guillermo and Zechmeister, Elizabeth J. (2000), ‘Ideological Dimensions and Left–Right Semantics in Latin America’, Paper presented at the Latin American Studies Association meeting, 16–18 March.Google Scholar
Rose, Richard and Urwin, Derek (1969), ‘Social Cohesion, Political Parties, and Strains in Regimes’, Comparative Political Studies, 2: 767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shin, Doh Chull and Jhee, Byong-Kuen (2005), ‘How Does Democratic Regime Change Affect Mass Political Ideology? A Case Study of South Korea in Comparative Perspective’, International Political Science Review, 26: 381–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shin, Doh Chull and Wells, Jason (2005), ‘Is Democracy the Only Game in Town?’, Journal of Democracy, 16: 88101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sigelman, Lee and Yough, Syng Nam (1978), ‘Left–Right Polarization in National Party Systems: A Cross-National Analysis’, Comparative Political Studies, 11: 355–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stokes, Donald E. (1963), ‘Spatial Models of Party Competition’, American Political Science Review, 57: 368–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomas, John Clayton (1979), ‘The Changing Nature of Partisan Divisions in the West: Trends in Domestic Policy Orientations in Ten Party Systems’, European Journal of Political Research, 7: 397413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tóka, Gábor (1998), ‘Party Appeals and Voter Loyalty in New Democracies’, Political Studies, 46: 589610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van der Eijk, Cees, Schmitt, Hermann, and Binder, Tanja (2005), ‘Left–Right Orientations and Party Choice’, in Thomassen, Jacques (ed.), The European Voter: A Comparative Study of Modern Democracies, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Whitefield, Stephen (2002), ‘Political Cleavages and Post-Communist Politics’, Annual Review of Political Science, 5: 181200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zielinkski, Jakub (2002), ‘Translating Social Cleavages into Party Systems: The Significance of New Democracies’, World Politics, 54: 184211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 14
Total number of PDF views: 150 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 28th February 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

How do Citizens in East Asian Democracies Understand Left and Right?
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

How do Citizens in East Asian Democracies Understand Left and Right?
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

How do Citizens in East Asian Democracies Understand Left and Right?
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *