Able, SL, Johnston, JA, Adler, LA, Swindle, RW (2007). Functional and psychosocial impairment in adults with undiagnosed ADHD. Psychological Medicine 37, 97–107.
Agresti, A (2013). Categorical Data Analysis, 3rd edition. John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, New Jersey, USA.
Almeida Montes, LG, Hernandez Garcia, AO, Ricardo-Garcell, J (2007). ADHD prevalence in adult outpatients with nonpsychotic psychiatric illnesses. Journal of Attention Disorders 11, 150–156.
Alpert, JE, Maddocks, A, Nierenberg, AA, O’Sullivan, R, Pava, JA, Worthington, JJ 3rd, Biederman, J, Rosenbaum, JF, Fava, M (1996). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood among adults with major depression. Psychiatry Research 62, 213–219.
Asherson, P, Chen, W, Craddock, B, Taylor, E (2007). Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: recognition and treatment in general adult psychiatry. British Journal of Psychiatry 190, 4–5.
Barkley, RA, Fischer, M, Smallish, L, Fletcher, K (2002). The persistence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into young adulthood as a function of reporting source and definition of disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 111, 279–289.
Beirne, M, McNamara, N, O’Keeffe, G, McNicholas, F (2013). Survey examining the views of Adult Psychiatry Consultants and Senior Registrars regarding ADHD. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine 30, 197–203.
Biederman, J (2005). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a selective overview. Biological Psychiatry 57, 1215–1220.
Biederman, J, Petty, CR, Evans, M, Small, J, Faraone, SV (2010). How persistent is ADHD? A controlled 10-year follow-up study of boys with ADHD. Psychiatry Research 177, 299–304.
Coghill, D (2015). Services for adults with ADHD: work in progress: commentary on . . . Specialist adult ADHD clinics in East Anglia. BJPsych Bulletin 39, 140–143.
Deberdt, W, Thome, J, Lebrec, J, Kraemer, S, Fregenal, I, Ramos-Quiroga, JA, Arif, M (2015). Prevalence of ADHD in nonpsychotic adult psychiatric care (ADPSYC): a multinational cross-sectional study in Europe. BMC Psychiatry 15, 242.
Faraone, SV, Biederman, J, Mick, E (2006). The age-dependent decline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis of follow-up studies. Psychological Medicine 36, 159–165.
Fayyad, J, De Graaf, R, Kessler, R, Alonso, J, Angermeyer, M, Demyttenaere, K, De Girolamo, G, Haro, JM, Karam, EG, Lara, C, Lepine, JP, Ormel, J, Posada-Villa, J, Zaslavsky, AM, Jin, R (2007). Cross-national prevalence and correlates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry 190, 402–409.
Fischer, M (1997). Persistence of ADHD into adulthood: it depends on whom you ask. The ADHD Report 5, 8–10.
Gaub, M, Carlson, CL (1997). Gender differences in ADHD: a meta-analysis and critical review. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 36, 1036–1045.
Ginsberg, Y, Quintero, J, Anand, E, Casillas, M, Upadhyaya, HP (2014). Underdiagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adult patients: a review of the literature. Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders 16, doi: 10.4088/PCC.13r01600.
Hall, CL, Newell, K, Taylor, J, Sayal, K, Hollis, C (2015). Services for young people with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder transitioning from child to adult mental health services: a national survey of mental health trusts in England. Journal of Psychopharmacology 29, 39–42.
Hechtman, L (1992). Long-term outcome in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 1, 553–565.
Kessler, RC, Adler, L, Ames, M, Demler, O, Faraone, S, Hiripi, E, Howes, MJ, Jin, R, Secnik, K, Spencer, T, Ustun, TB, Walters, EE (2005). The World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS): a short screening scale for use in the general population. Psychological Medicine 35, 245–256.
Kessler, RC, Adler, L, Barkley, R, Biederman, J, Conners, CK, Demler, O, Faraone, SV, Greenhill, LL, Howes, MJ, Secnik, K, Spencer, T, Ustun, TB, Walters, EE, Zaslavsky, AM (2006). The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. American Journal of Psychiatry 163, 716–723.
Klein, RG, Mannuzza, S (1991). Long-term outcome of hyperactive children: a review. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 30, 383–387.
Knight, TK, Kawatkar, A, Hodgkins, P, Moss, R, Chu, LH, Sikirica, V, Erder, MH, Nichol, MB (2014). Prevalence and incidence of adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a large managed care population. Current Medical Research and Opinion 30, 1291–1299.
Kooij, SJ, Bejerot, S, Blackwell, A, Caci, H, Casas-Brugue, M, Carpentier, PJ, Edvinsson, D, Fayyad, J, Foeken, K, Fitzgerald, M, Gaillac, V, Ginsberg, Y, Henry, C, Krause, J, Lensing, MB, Manor, I, Niederhofer, H, Nunes-Filipe, C, Ohlmeier, MD, Oswald, P, Pallanti, S, Pehlivanidis, A, Ramos-Quiroga, JA, Rastam, M, Ryffel-Rawak, D, Stes, S, Asherson, P (2010). European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: The European Network Adult ADHD. BMC Psychiatry 10, 67.
Lomas, B, Gartside, P (1999). ADHD in adult psychiatric outpatients. Psychiatric Services 50, 705.
Mannuzza, S, Klein, RG, Bessler, A, Malloy, P, LaPadula, M (1993). Adult outcome of hyperactive boys. Educational achievement, occupational rank, and psychiatric status. Arch Gen Psychiatry 50, 565–576.
Marchant, BK, Reimherr, FW, Robison, D, Robison, RJ, Wender, PH (2013). Psychometric properties of the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale. Psychological Assessment 25, 942.
McCann, BS, Roy-Byrne, P (2004). Screening and diagnostic utility of self-report attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scales in adults. Comprehensive Psychiatry 45, 175–183.
McCarthy, S, Wilton, L, Murray, M, Hodgkins, P, Asherson, P, Wong, IC (2013). Management of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in UK primary care: a survey of general practitioners. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 11, 22.
McNicholas, F, Adamson, M, McNamara, N, Gavin, B, Paul, M, Ford, T, Barry, S, Dooley, B, Coyne, I, Cullen, W (2015). Who is in the transition gap? Transition from CAMHS to AMHS in the Republic of Ireland. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine 32, 61–69.
McNamara, N, McNicholas, F, Ford, T, Paul, M, Gavin, B, Coyne, I, Cullen, W, O’Connor, K, Ramperti, N, Dooley, B, Barry, S, Singh, S (2013). Transition from child and adolescent to Adult Mental Health Services in the Republic of Ireland: an investigation of process and operational practice. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 8, 291–297.
Moncrieff, J, Timimi, S (2010). Is ADHD a valid diagnosis in adults? No. BMJ 340, c547.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2008). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Diagnosis and Management of ADHD in Children, Young People and Adults, Clinical Guideline CG72. National Institute for Health Care and Excellence, UK (https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg72). Accessed 12 August 2016.
Nutt, DJ, Fone, K, Asherson, P, Bramble, D, Hill, P, Matthews, K, Morris, KA, Santosh, P, Sonuga-Barke, E, Taylor, E, Weiss, M, Young, S, British Association for Psychopharmacology (2007). Evidence-based guidelines for management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescents in transition to adult services and in adults: recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. Journal of Psychopharmacology 21, 10–41.
Nylander, L, Holmqvist, M, Gustafson, L, Gillberg, C (2009). ADHD in adult psychiatry. Minimum rates and clinical presentation in general psychiatry outpatients. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 63, 64–71.
Oerbeck, B, Overgaard, K, Pripp, AH, Aase, H, Reichborn-Kjennerud, T, Zeiner, P (2015). Adult ADHD symptoms and satisfaction with life: does age and sex matter? Journal of Attention Disorders, doi: 10.1177/1087054715612257.
Rao, P, Place, M (2011). Prevalence of ADHD in four general adult outpatient clinics in North East England. Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry 15, 7–10.
Rasmussen, P, Gillberg, C (2000). Natural outcome of ADHD with developmental coordination disorder at age 22 years: a controlled, longitudinal, community-based study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 39, 1424–1431.
Rossini, ED, O’Connor, MA (1995). Retrospective self-reported symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: reliability of the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Psychological Reports 77, 751–754.
Rucklidge, JJ (2010). Gender differences in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 33, 357–373.
Schroder, R, Sellman, D, Frampton, C, Deering, D (2009). Youth retention: factors associated with treatment drop‐out from youth alcohol and other drug treatment. Drug and Alcohol Review 28, 663–668.
Simon, V, Czobor, P, Balint, S, Meszaros, A, Bitter, I (2009). Prevalence and correlates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry 194, 204–211.
Singh, SP, Paul, M, Ford, T, Kramer, T, Weaver, T, McLaren, S, Hovish, K, Islam, Z, Belling, R, White, S (2010). Process, outcome and experience of transition from child to adult mental healthcare: multiperspective study. British Journal of Psychiatry 197, 305–312.
Syed, H, Masaud, TM, Nkire, N, Iro, C, Garland, MR (2010). Estimating the prevalence of adult ADHD in the psychiatric clinic: a cross-sectional study using the adult ADHD self-report scale (ASRS). Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine 27, 195–197.
Tatlow-Golden, M, Neary, M, Farrelly, N, Reulbach, U, McNicholas, F (2015). ADHD young adult service innovations: a combined child and adult psychiatry-led pilot university-based ADHD service. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 24, S88–S89.
Taylor, A, Deb, S, Unwin, G (2011). Scales for the identification of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a systematic review. Research in Developmental Disabilities 32, 924–938.
Thorley, G (1984). Review of follow-up and follow-back studies of childhood hyperactivity. Psychological Bulletin 96, 116–132.
Toone, B (2004). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adulthood. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 75, 523–525.
Turgay, A, Goodman, DW, Asherson, P, Lasser, RA, Babcock, TF, Pucci, ML, Barkley, R, Group, ATPMW (2012). Lifespan persistence of ADHD: the life transition model and its application. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 73, 192–201.
Valdizan, JR, Izaguerri-Gracia, AC (2009). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. Revista de Neurologia 48 (Suppl. 2): S95–S99.
van de Glind, G, van den Brink, W, Koeter, MW, Carpentier, PJ, van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, K, Kaye, S, Skutle, A, Bu, ET, Franck, J, Konstenius, M, Moggi, F, Dom, G, Verspreet, S, Demetrovics, Z, Kapitany-Foveny, M, Fatseas, M, Auriacombe, M, Schillinger, A, Seitz, A, Johnson, B, Faraone, SV, Ramos-Quiroga, JA, Casas, M, Allsop, S, Carruthers, S, Barta, C, Schoevers, RA, Group, IR, Levin, FR (2013). Validity of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) as a screener for adult ADHD in treatment seeking substance use disorder patients. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 132, 587–596.
van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, K, van de Glind, G, van den Brink, W, Smit, F, Crunelle, CL, Swets, M, Schoevers, RA (2012). Prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in substance use disorder patients: a meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 122, 11–19.
Wierzbicki, M (2005). Reliability and validity of the Wender Utah Rating Scale for college students. Psychological Reports 96, 833–839.