Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Diabetes and brain health: implications for practice

  • C. Dolan (a1), J. McHugh (a1) and B. Lawlor (a1)

Abstract

Background

It is widely accepted that people with mental illness have increased risk of cardiometabolic complications such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. What is less well known is that individuals with diabetes have an increased risk of brain health complications including depression, cognitive impairment and dementia. These conditions can adversely influence disease self-management and further increase risk of other diabetes complications.

Aim

The aim of this paper is to highlight the increased risk of brain health complications in populations with diabetes in order to promote awareness of such complications among healthcare professionals and encourage timely intervention.

Methods

An overview of the prevalence and potential mechanisms linking depression and cognitive impairment with diabetes as well as implications for detection, management and brain health protection, based on a narrative review of the literature.

Conclusions

Early detection and effective management of depression and cognitive impairment among individuals with diabetes has the potential to minimise adverse health outcomes. In order to promote screening healthcare professionals caring for individuals with diabetes in all settings must be aware of the increased risk of brain health complications in this vulnerable population.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: Dr C. Dolan, Psychiatry Department, Jonathan Swift Clinic, St. James’s Hospital, Dublin 8, Ireland. (Email: cadolan@stjames.ie)

References

Hide All
Abitbol, R, Rej, S, Segal, M, Looper, KJ (2015). Diabetes mellitus onset in geriatric patients: does long-term atypical antipsychotic exposure increase risk? Psychogeriatrics 15, 4350.
Aikens, JE, Perkins, DW, Lipton, B, Piette, JD (2009). Longitudinal analysis of depressive symptoms and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 32, 11771181.
Albert, MS, DeKosky, ST, Dickson, D, Dubois, B, Feldman, HH, Fox, NC, Gamst, A, Holtzman, DM, Jagust, WJ, Petersen, RC, Snyder, PJ, Carrillo, MC, Thies, B, Phelps, CH (2011). The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement 7, 270279.
Ali, S, Stone, MA, Peters, JL, Davies, MJ, Khunti, K (2006). The prevalence of co-morbid depression in adults with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetic Medicine 23, 11651173.
American Diabetes Association (2015). Older adults. Sec. 10. In Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2015. Diabetes Care 38 (Suppl. 1), S67–S69.
Anderson, RJ, Freedland, KE, Clouse, RE, Lustman, PJ (2001). The prevalence of comorbid depression in adults with diabetes a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 24, 10691078.
Arvanitakis, Z, Wilson, RS, Bienias, JL, Evans, DA, Bennett, DA (2004). Diabetes mellitus and risk of Alzheimer disease and decline in cognitive function. Archives of Neurology 61, 661666.
Atlantis, E, Fahey, P, Foster, J (2014). Collaborative care for comorbid depression and diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open 4, 110.
Azevedo Da Silva, M, Dugravot, A, Balkau, B, Roussel, R, Fumeron, F, Elbaz, A, Canonico, M, Singh-Manoux, A, Nabi, H, D.E.S.I.R. Study Group (2015). Antidepressant medication use and trajectories of fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin, β-cell function and insulin sensitivity: a 9-year longitudinal study of the D.E.S.I.R. cohort. International Journal of Epidemiology. doi:10.1093/ije/dyv153.
Banerjee, C, Moon, YP, Paik, MC, Rundek, T, Mora-McLaughlin, C, Vieira, JR, Sacco, RL, Elkind, MS (2012). Duration of diabetes and risk of ischemic stroke: the Northern Manhattan study. Stroke 43, 12121217.
Beck, AT, Ward, CH, Mendelson, M, Mock, J, Erbaugh, J (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 4, 561571.
Biessels, GJ, Deary, IJ, Ryan, CM (2008). Cognition and diabetes: a lifespan perspective. The Lancet Neurology 7, 184190.
Biessels, GJ, Reijmer, YD (2014). Brain changes underlying cognitive dysfunction in diabetes: what can we learn from MRI? Diabetes 63, 22442252.
Bonnet, F, Irving, K, Terra, J-L, Nony, P, Berthezène, F, Moulin, P (2005). Anxiety and depression are associated with unhealthy lifestyle in patients at risk of cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis 178, 339344.
Borson, S, Scanlan, J, Brush, M, Vitaliano, P, Dokmak, A (2000). The mini-cog: a cognitive ‘vital signs’ measure for dementia screening in multi-lingual elderly. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 15, 10211027.
Brands, AMA, Biessels, GJ, Haan, EHF, de Kappelle, LJ, Kessels, RPC (2005). The effects of type 1 diabetes on cognitive performance a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 28, 726735.
Brown, ES, Varghese, FP, McEwen, BS (2004). Association of depression with medical illness: does cortisol play a role? Biological Psychiatry 55, 19.
Bruce, DG (2015). Type 2 diabetes and cognitive function: many questions, few answers. The Lancet Neurology 14, 241242.
Bruce, DG, Davis, WA, Casey, GP, Starkstein, SE, Clarnette, RM, Almeida, OP, Davis, TME (2008). Predictors of cognitive decline in older individuals with diabetes. Diabetes Care 31, 21032107.
Bruce, DG, Davis, WA, Starkstein, SE, Davis, TM (2014). Mid-life predictors of cognitive impairment and dementia in type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fremantle Diabetes Study. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 42 (Suppl 3): S63S70.
Buydens-Branchey, L, Branchey, M, Hudson, J, Fergeson, P (2000). Low HDL cholesterol, aggression and altered central serotonergic activity. Psychiatry Research 93, 93102.
Central Statistics Office (2013). Population and Labour Force Projections, 2016-2046. Central Statistics Office: Ireland.
Champaneri, S, Wand, GS, Malhotra, SS, Casagrande, SS, Golden, SH (2010). Biological basis of depression in adults with diabetes. Current Diabetes Report 10, 396405.
Chan, O, Chan, S, Inouye, K, Vranic, M, Matthews, SG (2001). Molecular regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in streptozotocin-induced diabetes: effects of insulin treatment. Endocrinology 142, 48724879.
Chen, C, Wang, Y, Zhang, J, Ma, L, Gu, J, Ho, G (2014). Contribution of neural cell death to depressive phenotypes of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Disease Models & Mechanisms 7, 723730.
Cheng, G, Huang, C, Deng, H, Wang, H (2012). Diabetes as a risk factor for dementia and mild cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies: diabetes and cognitive function. Internal Medicine Journal 42, 484491.
Chiu, S-L, Chen, C-M, Cline, HT (2008). Insulin receptor signaling regulates synapse number, dendritic plasticity, and circuit function in vivo. Neuron 58, 708719.
Christman, AL, Vannorsdall, TD, Pearlson, GD, Hill-Briggs, F, Schretlen, DJ (2010). Cranial volume, mild cognitive deficits, and functional limitations associated with diabetes in a community sample. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 25, 4959.
Cooper, C, Sommerlad, A, Lyketsos, CG, Livingston, G (2015). Modifiable predictors of dementia in mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The American Journal of Psychiatry 172, 323334.
Cosway, R, Strachan, MWJ, Dougall, A, Frier, BM, Deary, IJ (2001). Cognitive function and information processing in type 2 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine 18, 803810.
Coventry, P, Lovell, K, Dickens, C, Bower, P, Chew-Graham, C, McElvenny, D, Hann, M, Cherrington, A, Garrett, C, Gibbons, CJ, Baguley, C, Roughley, K, Adeyemi, I, Reeves, D, Waheed, W, Gask, L (2015). Integrated primary care for patients with mental and physical multimorbidity: cluster randomised controlled trial of collaborative care for patients with depression comorbid with diabetes or cardiovascular disease. BMJ 350, h638.
Cukierman-Yaffe, T, Gerstein, HC, Anderson, C, Zhao, F, Sleight, P, Hilbrich, L, Jackson, SHD, Yusuf, S, Teo, K, ONTARGET/TRANSCEND Investigators (2009). Glucose intolerance and diabetes as risk factors for cognitive impairment in people at high cardiovascular risk: results from the ONTARGET/TRANSCEND research programme. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 83, 387393.
Dantzer, R, O’Connor, JC, Freund, GG, Johnson, RW, Kelley, KW (2008). From inflammation to sickness and depression: when the immune system subjugates the brain. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience 9, 4656.
Das-Munshi, J, Stewart, R, Ismail, K, Bebbington, PE, Jenkins, R, Prince, MJ (2007). Diabetes, common mental disorders, and disability: findings from the UK National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. Psychosomatic Medicine 69, 543550.
De Groot, M, Anderson, R, Freedland, KE, Clouse, RE, Lustman, PJ (2001). Association of depression and diabetes complications: a meta-analysis. Psychosomatic Medicine 63, 619630.
De Groot, M, Doyle, T, Kushnick, M, Shubrook, J, Merrill, J, Rabideau, E, Schwartz, F (2012). Can lifestyle interventions do more than reduce diabetes risk? Treating depression in adults with type 2 diabetes with exercise and cognitive behavioral therapy. Current Diabetes Reports 12, 157166.
De Jonge, P, Alonso, J, Stein, DJ, Kiejna, A, Aguilar-Gaxiola, S, Viana, MC, Liu, Z, O’Neill, S, Bruffaerts, R, Caldas-de-Almeida, JM, Lepine, J-P, Matschinger, H, Levinson, D, de Girolamo, G, Fukao, A, Bunting, B, Haro, JM, Posada-Villa, JA, Al-Hamzawi, AO, Medina-Mora, ME, Piazza, M, Hu, C, Sasu, C, Lim, CCW, Kessler, RC, Scott, KM (2014). Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and diabetes mellitus: a role for impulse control disorders and depression. Diabetologia 57, 699709.
De Vet, E, de Ridder, DTD, de Wit, JBF (2011). Environmental correlates of physical activity and dietary behaviours among young people: a systematic review of reviews. Obesity Reviews 12, e130e142.
DiMatteo, MR, Lepper, HS, Croghan, TW (2000). Depression is a risk factor for noncompliance with medical treatment: meta-analysis of the effects of anxiety and depression on patient adherence. Archives of Internal Medicine 160, 21012107.
Egede, LE, Ellis, C (2010). Diabetes and depression: global perspectives. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 87, 302312.
Egede, LE, Nietert, PJ, Zheng, D (2005). Depression and all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality among adults with and without diabetes. Diabetes Care 28, 13391345.
Elcombe, EL, Lagopoulos, J, Duffy, SL, Lewis, SJG, Norrie, L, Hickie, IB, Naismith, SL (2015). Hippocampal volume in older adults at risk of cognitive decline: the role of sleep, vascular risk, and depression. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 44, 12791290.
Espeland, MA, Miller, ME, Goveas, JS, Hogan, PE, Coker, LH, Williamson, J, Naughton, M, Resnick, SM (2011). Cognitive function and fine motor speed in older women with diabetes mellitus: results from the women’s health initiative study of cognitive aging. Journal of Women’s Health 20, 14351443.
Exalto, LG, Biessels, GJ, Karter, AJ, Huang, ES, Katon, WJ, Minkoff, JR, Whitmer, RA (2013). Risk score for prediction of 10 year dementia risk in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a cohort study. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology 1, 183190.
Feil, DG, Zhu, CW, Sultzer, DL (2012). The relationship between cognitive impairment and diabetes self-management in a population-based community sample of older adults with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 35, 190199.
Gallacher, JEJ, Pickering, J, Elwood, PC, Bayer, AJ, Yarnell, JW, Ben-Shlomo, Y (2005). Glucoregulation has greater impact on cognitive performance than macro-vascular disease in men with type 2 diabetes: data from the Caerphilly study. European Journal of Epidemiology 20, 761768.
Gonzalez, JS, Peyrot, M, McCarl, LA, Collins, EM, Serpa, L, Mimiaga, MJ, Safren, SA (2008). Depression and diabetes treatment nonadherence: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 31, 23982403.
Gorska-Ciebiada, M, Saryusz-Wolska, M, Borkowska, A, Ciebiada, M, Loba, J (2015). Serum levels of inflammatory markers in depressed elderly patients with diabetes and mild cognitive impairment. PLoS One 10, 117.
Harten, B, van Leeuw, F-E, de Weinstein, HC, Scheltens, P, Biessels, GJ (2006). Brain imaging in patients with diabetes a systematic review. Diabetes Care 29, 25392548.
Hermanns, N, Kulzer, B, Krichbaum, M, Kubiak, T, Haak, T (2005). Affective and anxiety disorders in a German sample of diabetic patients: prevalence, comorbidity and risk factors. Diabetic Medicine 22, 293300.
Holt, P (2014). Blood glucose monitoring in diabetes. Nursing Standard 28, 5258.
Holt, RIG, de Groot, M, Golden, SH (2014). Diabetes and depression. Current Diabetes Reports 14, 491.
Howren, MB, Lamkin, DM, Suls, J (2009). Associations of depression with C-reactive protein, IL-1, and IL-6: a meta-analysis. Psychosomatic Medicine 71, 171186.
Huang, Y, Wei, X, Wu, T, Chen, R, Guo, A (2013). Collaborative care for patients with depression and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry 13, 260.
Hutter, N, Schnurr, A, Baumeister, H (2010). Healthcare costs in patients with diabetes mellitus and comorbid mental disorders—a systematic review. Diabetologia 53, 24702479.
International Diabetes Federation (2013). Managing Older People with Type 2 Diabetes. International Diabetes Federation: Brussels, Belgium. www.idf.org.
International Diabetes Federation (2014). IDF Diabetes Atlas Update Poster, 6th edn. International Diabetes Federation: Brussels, Belgium. http://www.idf.org/diabetesatlas.
Ismail, K, Maissi, E, Thomas, S, Chalder, T, Schmidt, U, Bartlett, J, Patel, A, Dickens, C, Creed, F, Treasure, J (2010). A randomised controlled trial of cognitive behaviour therapy and motivational interviewing for people with type 1 diabetes mellitus with persistent sub-optimal glycaemic control: a Diabetes and Psychological Therapies (ADaPT) study. Health Technology Assessment 14, 1101, iii–iv.
Kan, C, Silva, N, Golden, SH, Rajala, U, Timonen, M, Stahl, D, Ismail, K (2013). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between depression and insulin resistance. Diabetes Care 36, 480489.
Katon, W, Pedersen, H, Ribe, AR, Fenger-Grøn, M, Davydow, D, Waldorff, FB, Vestergaard, M (2015). Effect of depression and diabetes mellitus on the risk for dementia: a national population-based cohort study. JAMA Psychiatry 72, 612619.
Katon, WJ, Lin, EHB, Williams, LH, Ciechanowski, P, Heckbert, SR, Ludman, E, Rutter, C, Crane, PK, Oliver, M, Von Korff, M (2010). Comorbid depression is associated with an increased risk of dementia diagnosis in patients with diabetes: a prospective cohort study. Journal of General Internal Medicine 25, 423429.
Katon, WJ, Rutter, C, Simon, G, Lin, EHB, Ludman, E, Ciechanowski, P, Kinder, L, Young, B, Von Korff, M (2005). The association of comorbid depression with mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 28, 26682672.
Knol, MJ, Twisk, JWR, Beekman, ATF, Heine, RJ, Snoek, FJ, Pouwer, F (2006). Depression as a risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A meta-analysis. Diabetologia 49, 837845.
Kooistra, M, Geerlings, MI, Mali, WPTM, Vincken, KL, van der Graaf, Y, Biessels, GJ (2013). Diabetes mellitus and progression of vascular brain lesions and brain atrophy in patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease. The SMART-MR study. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 332, 6974.
Kothari, V, Stevens, RJ, Adler, AI, Stratton, IM, Manley, SE, Neil, HA, Holman, RR (2002). UKPDS 60: risk of stroke in type 2 diabetes estimated by the UK prospective diabetes study risk engine. Stroke 33, 17761781.
Kumar, A, Gupta, R, Thomas, A, Ajilore, O, Hellemann, G (2009). Focal subcortical biophysical abnormalities in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 66, 324330.
Kumar, A, Yang, S, Ajilore, O, Wu, M, Cohen, J, Lamar, M, Bhaumik, D (2015). Biophysical changes in subcortical nuclei: the impact of diabetes and major depression. Molecular Psychiatry, doi:10.1038/mp.2015.89.
Launer, LJ, Miller, ME, Williamson, JD, Lazar, RM, Gerstein, HC, Murray, AM, Sullivan, M, Horowitz, KR, Ding, J, Marcovina, S, Lovato, LC, Lovato, J, Margolis, KL, O’Connor, P, Lipkin, EW, Hirsch, J, Coker, L, Maldjian, J, Sunshine, JL, Truwit, C, Davatzikos, C, Bryan, RN, ACCORD MIND investigators (2011). Effects of intensive glucose lowering on brain structure and function in people with type 2 diabetes (ACCORD MIND): a randomised open-label substudy. Lancet Neurology 10, 969977.
Li, C, Ford, ES, Strine, TW, Mokdad, AH (2008). Prevalence of depression among U.S. adults with diabetes: findings from the 2006 behavioral risk factor surveillance system. Diabetes Care 31, 105107.
Li, C, Ford, ES, Zhao, G, Balluz, LS, Berry, JT, Mokdad, AH (2010). Undertreatment of mental health problems in adults with diagnosed diabetes and serious psychological distress. Diabetes Care 33, 10611064.
Luchsinger, JA (2012). Type 2 diabetes and cognitive impairment: linking mechanisms. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 30, S185S198.
Luppino, FS, de Wit, LM, Bouvy, PF, Stijnen, T, Cuijpers, P, Penninx, BWJH, Zitman, FG (2010). Overweight, obesity, and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Archives of General Psychiatry 67, 220229.
Lustman, PJ, Clouse, RE (2005). Depression in diabetic patients: the relationship between mood and glycemic control. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications 19, 113122.
Lustman, PJ, Griffith, LS, Clouse, RE (1988). Depression in adults with diabetes: results of 5-yr follow-up study. Diabetes Care 11, 605612.
McCrimmon, RJ, Ryan, CM, Frier, BM (2012). Diabetes and cognitive dysfunction. The Lancet 379, 22912299.
McFall, GP, Geall, BP, Fischer, AL, Dolcos, S, Dixon, RA (2010). Testing covariates of type 2 diabetes-cognition associations in older adults: moderating or mediating effects? Neuropsychology 24, 547562.
Mehrabian, S, Raycheva, M, Gateva, A, Todorova, G, Angelova, P, Traykova, M, Stankova, T, Kamenov, Z, Traykov, L (2012). Cognitive dysfunction profile and arterial stiffness in type 2 diabetes. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 322, 152156.
Mezuk, B, Eaton, WW, Albrecht, S, Golden, SH (2008). Depression and type 2 diabetes over the lifespan: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 31, 23832390.
Mitchell, AJ (2012). Psychiatric aspects of chronic physical disease. Medicine 40, 662665.
Monette, MCE, Baird, A, Jackson, DL (2014). A meta-analysis of cognitive functioning in nondemented adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Canadian Journal of Diabetes 38, 401408.
Moran, C, Phan, TG, Chen, J, Blizzard, L, Beare, R, Venn, A, Münch, G, Wood, AG, Forbes, J, Greenaway, TM, Pearson, S, Srikanth, V (2013). Brain atrophy in type 2 diabetes regional distribution and influence on cognition. Diabetes Care 36, 40364042.
Munshi, M, Capelson, R, Grande, L, Lin, S, Hayes, M, Milberg, W, Ayres, D, Weinger, K, Suhl, E (2006). Cognitive dysfunction is associated with poor diabetes control in older adults. Diabetes Care 29, 17941799.
Musselman, DL, Betan, E, Larsen, H, Phillips, LS (2003). Relationship of depression to diabetes types 1 and 2: epidemiology, biology, and treatment. Biological Psychiatry 54, 317329.
Nandipati, S, Luo, X, Schimming, C, Grossman, HT, Sano, M (2012). Cognition in non-demented diabetic older adults. Current Aging Science 5, 131135.
Nasreddine, ZS, Phillips, NA, Bédirian, V, Charbonneau, S, Whitehead, V, Collin, I, Cummings, JL, Chertkow, H (2005). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 53, 695699.
Norton, S, Matthews, FE, Barnes, DE, Yaffe, K, Brayne, C (2014). Potential for primary prevention of Alzheimer’s disease: an analysis of population-based data. The Lancet Neurology 13, 788794.
Nouwen, A, Nefs, G, Caramlau, I, Connock, M, Winkley, K, Lloyd, CE, Peyrot, M, Pouwer, F (2011). Prevalence of depression in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism or undiagnosed diabetes a systematic review and meta-analysis of the European Depression in Diabetes (EDID) Research Consortium. Diabetes Care 34, 752762.
Nouwen, A, Winkley, K, Twisk, J, Lloyd, CE, Peyrot, M, Ismail, K, Pouwer, F (2010). Type 2 diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for the onset of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetologia 53, 24802486.
Novak, V, Zhao, P, Manor, B, Sejdić, E, Alsop, D, Abduljalil, A, Roberson, PK, Munshi, M, Novak, P (2011). Adhesion molecules, altered vasoreactivity, and brain atrophy in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 34, 24382441.
Okura, T, Heisler, M, Langa, KM (2009). The association of cognitive function and social support with glycemic control in adults with diabetes. Journal of American Geriatrics Society 57, 18161824.
Park, M, Katon, WJ, Wolf, FM (2013). Depression and risk of mortality in individuals with diabetes: a meta-analysis and systematic review. General Hospital Psychiatry 35, 217225.
Petrak, F, Baumeister, H, Skinner, TC, Brown, A, Holt, RIG (2015). Depression and diabetes: treatment and health-care delivery. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 3, 472485.
Peyrot, M, Rubin, RR (1999). Persistence of depressive symptoms in diabetic adults. Diabetes Care 22, 448452.
Peyrot, M, Rubin, RR, Lauritzen, T, Snoek, FJ, Matthews, DR, Skovlund, SE (2005). Psychosocial problems and barriers to improved diabetes management: results of the Cross-National Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN) Study. Diabetic Medicine 22, 13791385.
Peyrot, M, Burns, KK, Davies, M, Forbes, A, Hermanns, N, Holt, R, Kalra, S, Nicolucci, A, Pouwer, F, Wens, J, Willaing, I, Skovlund, SE (2013). Diabetes Attitudes Wishes and Needs 2 (DAWN2): a multinational, multi-stakeholder study of psychosocial issues in diabetes and person-centered diabetes care. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 99, 174184.
Punthakee, Z, Miller, ME, Launer, LJ, Williamson, JD, Lazar, RM, Cukierman-Yaffee, T, Seaquist, ER, Ismail-Beigi, F, Sullivan, MD, Lovato, LC, Bergenstal, RM, Gerstein, HC, ACCORD Group of Investigators, ACCORD-MIND Investigators (2012). Poor cognitive function and risk of severe hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes: post hoc epidemiologic analysis of the ACCORD trial. Diabetes Care 35, 787793.
Radloff, LS (1977). The CES-D Scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement 1, 385401.
Raevuori, A, Suokas, J, Haukka, J, Gissler, M, Linna, M, Grainger, M, Suvisaari, J (2015). Highly increased risk of type 2 diabetes in patients with binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa. The International Journal of Eating Disorders 48, 555562.
Reijmer, YD, Leemans, A, Brundel, M, Kappelle, LJ, Biessels, GJ, on behalf of the Utrecht Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI) Study Group (2013). Disruption of the cerebral white matter network is related to slowing of information processing speed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 62, 21122115.
Reijmer, YD, van den Berg, E, Ruis, C, Kappelle, LJ, Biessels, GJ (2010). Cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 26, 507519.
Rotella, F, Mannucci, E (2013 a). Diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for depression. A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 99, 98104.
Rotella, F, Mannucci, E (2013 b). Depression as a risk factor for diabetes: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 74, 3137.
Samaras, K, Sachdev, PS (2012). Diabetes and the elderly brain: sweet memories? Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism 3, 189196.
Sartorius, N, Holt, RIG, Maj, M (2014). Comorbidity of Mental and Physical Disorders. Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers: Basal, Switzerland.
Shoelson, SE, Lee, J, Goldfine, AB (2006). Inflammation and insulin resistance. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 116, 17931801.
Smith, MA, Else, JE, Paul, L, Foster, JK, Walker, M, Wesnes, KA, Riby, LM (2014). Functional living in older adults with type 2 diabetes: executive functioning, dual task performance, and the impact on postural stability and motor control. Journal of Aging and Health 26, 841859.
Spitzer, RL, Kroenke, K, Williams, JB (1999). Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: the PHQ primary care study. Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. Patient Health Questionnaire. JAMA 282, 17371744.
Subramaniam, M, Chong, S-A, Pek, E (2003). Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in patients with schizophrenia. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 48, 345347.
Talbot, K, Wang, H-Y, Kazi, H, Han, L-Y, Bakshi, KP, Stucky, A, Fuino, RL, Kawaguchi, KR, Samoyedny, AJ, Wilson, RS (2012). Demonstrated brain insulin resistance in Alzheimer’s disease patients is associated with IGF-1 resistance, IRS-1 dysregulation, and cognitive decline. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 122, 13161338.
Taylor, D, Young, C, Mohamed, R, Paton, C, Walwyn, R (2005). Undiagnosed impaired fasting glucose and diabetes mellitus amongst inpatients receiving antipsychotic drugs. Journal of Psychopharmacology 19, 182186.
Thambisetty, M, Metter, EJ, Yang, A, Dolan, H, Marano, C, Zonderman, AB, Troncoso, JC, Zhou, Y, Wong, DF, Ferrucci, L, Egan, J, Resnick, SM, O’Brien, RJ (2013). Glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and pathological features of Alzheimer disease in the Baltimore longitudinal study of aging. JAMA Neurology 70, 11671172.
Toro, P, Schönknecht, P, Schröder, J (2009). Type II diabetes in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease: results from a prospective population-based study in Germany. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 16, 687691.
United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2015). World population prospects: the 2015 revision, key findings and advance tables. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.241, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, New York, USA.
Van den Berg, E, Kloppenborg, RP, Kessels, RPC, Kappelle, LJ, Biessels, GJ (2009). Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity: a systematic comparison of their impact on cognition. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1792, 470481.
Van den Berg, E, Reijmer, YD, de Bresser, J, Kessels, RPC, Kappelle, LJ, Biessels, GJ (2010). A 4 year follow-up study of cognitive functioning in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 53, 5865.
Van Dooren, FEP, Nefs, G, Schram, MT, Verhey, FRJ, Denollet, J, Pouwer, F (2013). Depression and risk of mortality in people with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 8, 111.
Van Elderen, SGC, de Roos, A, de Craen, AJM, Westendorp, RGJ, Blauw, GJ, Jukema, JW, Bollen, ELEM, Middelkoop, HAM, van Buchem, MA, van der Grond, J (2010). Progression of brain atrophy and cognitive decline in diabetes mellitus: a 3-year follow-up. Neurology 75, 9971002.
Van Steenbergen-Weijenburg, KM, van Puffelen, AL, Horn, EK, Nuyen, J, van Dam, PS, van Benthem, TB, Beekman, ATF, Rutten, FFH, Hakkaart-van Roijen, L, van der Feltz-Cornelis, CM (2011). More co-morbid depression in patients with type 2 diabetes with multiple complications. An observational study at a specialized outpatient clinic. Diabetic Medicine 28, 8689.
Velayudhan, L, Poppe, M, Archer, N, Proitsi, P, Brown, RG, Lovestone, S (2010). Risk of developing dementia in people with diabetes and mild cognitive impairment. The British Journal of Psychiatry 196, 3640.
Verdile, G, Fuller, SJ, Martins, RN (2015). The role of type 2 diabetes in neurodegeneration. Neurobiology of Disease, doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2015.04.008.
Verdelho, A, Madureira, S, Moleiro, C, Ferro, JM, Santos, CO, Erkinjuntti, T, Pantoni, L, Fazekas, F, Visser, M, Waldemar, G, Wallin, A, Hennerici, M, Inzitari, D, LADIS Study (2010). White matter changes and diabetes predict cognitive decline in the elderly: the LADIS study. Neurology 75, 160167.
Voruganti, LP, Punthakee, Z, Van Lieshout, RJ, MacCrimmon, D, Parker, G, Awad, AG, Gerstein, HC (2007). Dysglycemia in a community sample of people treated for schizophrenia: the Diabetes in Schizophrenia in Central-South Ontario (DiSCO) study. Schizophrenia Research 96, 215222.
Walker, RJ, Smalls, BL, Hernandez-Tejada, MA, Campbell, JA, Davis, KS, Egede, LE (2012). Effect of diabetes fatalism on medication adherence and self-care behaviors in adults with diabetes. General Hospital Psychiatry 34, 598603.
Welch, G, Weinger, K, Anderson, B, Polonsky, WH (2003). Responsiveness of the problem areas in diabetes (PAID) questionnaire. Diabetic Medicine 20, 6972.
Welch, GW, Jacobson, AM, Polonsky, WH (1997). The problem areas in diabetes scale: an evaluation of its clinical utility. Diabetes Care 20, 760766.
Yaffe, K, Falvey, C, Hamilton, N, Schwartz, AV, Simonsick, EM, Satterfield, S, Cauley, JA, Rosano, C, Launer, LJ, Strotmeyer, ES, Harris, TB (2012). Diabetes, glucose control, and 9-year cognitive decline among older adults without dementia. Archives of Neurology 69, 112.
Yu, M, Zhang, X, Lu, F, Fang, L (2015). Depression and risk for diabetes: a meta-analysis. Canadian Journal of Diabetes 39, 266272.
Zhao, W-Q, Townsend, M (2009). Insulin resistance and amyloidogenesis as common molecular foundation for type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1792, 482496.
Zigmond, AS, Snaith, RP (1983). The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 67, 361370.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed