Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

A descriptive survey of online gaming characteristics and gaming disorder in Ireland

  • David Columb (a1), Mark D Griffiths (a2) and Colin O’Gara (a1) (a3)

Abstract

Objectives

The aim of this study was to carry out the first ever study of gaming characteristics of individuals engaging in online gaming in Ireland and to ascertain whether features of gaming disorder are present in this population.

Methods

An online survey (comprising 21 questions – 3 demographic questions and 18 questions related to gaming and gaming disorder) was distributed on numerous Irish online gaming forums and Irish online gaming communities. Participants were self-selected and invited to compete the online survey containing questions related to gaming behaviours (age of onset, hours played on weekdays/weekends, type of device used), mobile gaming, motives for online gaming, use of microtransactions, engagement in esports, and a screening tool for the presence of gaming disorder.

Results

A total of 166 participants engaged in the online survey. Among this study population of regular gamers in Ireland, 2.4% of the study population were classified as having gaming disorder, with up to 5.4% showing some evidence of disordered gaming. The main motivation for online gaming in the non-disordered gaming group was recreation (13.3, sd = 2.7) but only the fourth main motivation in the disordered gaming group behind competition (16.3, sd = 3.7), escape (16.2, sd = 4.3), and coping (15.1, sd = 3.7). Increased hours of gameplay on weekdays and weekends were noted in the disordered gaming group compared to non-disordered gamers.

Conclusions

A small percentage of gamers in Ireland demonstrate disordered gaming characteristics and gaming disorder, consistent with data from other international studies. Epidemiological studies are required in Ireland to enhance our knowledge of this disorder.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: D. Columb, Senior Medical Officer, Addiction Department, St John of God Hospital, Stillorgan, Co Dublin, Ireland. (Email: david.columb@sjog.ie)

References

Hide All
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (5th ed.). American Psychiatric Association: Arlington, VA.
Bányai, F, Griffiths, MD, Király, O, Demetrovics, Z (2019). The psychology of esports: a systematic literature review. Journal of Gambling Studies 35, 351365.
Chalk, A (2018). Fortnite passes PUBG with 3.4 million concurrent players (https://www.pcgamer.com/fortnite-passes-pubg-with-34-million-concurrent-players/)
Cocking, S (2018). Will 2018 be the year that Ireland finally embraces eSports? (https://irishtechnews.ie/will-2018-be-the-year-that-ireland-finally-embraces-esports/)
Columb, D, Griffiths, M, O’Gara, C (2019). Online gaming and gaming disorder: more than just a trivial pursuit. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, 17. doi: 10.1017/ipm.2019.31
Das, P, Zhu, MO, Mclaughlin, L, Bilgrami, Z, Milanaik, R (2017). Augmented reality video games: new possibilities and implications for children and adolescents. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction 1, 8.
Demetrovics, Z, Urbán, R, Nagygyörgy, K, Farkas, J, Zilahy, D, Mervó, B, Reindl, A, Ágoston, C, Kertész, A, Harmath, E (2011). Why do you play? The development of the motives for online gaming questionnaire (MOGQ). Behavior Research Methods 43, 814825.
Duverge, G (2016). Insert more coins: the psychology behind microtransactions. (https://www.tuw.edu/content/psychology/psychology-behind-microtransactions/).
Elliott, L, Golub, A, Ream, G, Dunlap, E (2012). Video game genre as a predictor of problem use. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 15, 155161.
Feng, W, Ramo, D, Chan, S, Bourgeois, J (2017). Internet gaming disorder: trends in prevalence 1998–2016. Addictive Behaviors 75, 17.
International Games industry (2004). Blizzard Entertainment announces World of Warcraft ‘street date’. (https://www.gamesindustry.biz/articles/blizzard-entertainment-announces-world-of-warcraft-street-date-november-23–2004).
Gentile, D (2009). Pathological video-game use among youth ages 8 to 18: A national study. Psychological Science 20, 594602.
Griffiths, MD (2010). The role of context in online gaming excess and addiction: some case study evidence. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 8, 119125.
Griffiths, MD (2017). The psychosocial impact of professional gambling, professional video gaming & eSports. Casino & Gaming International 28, 5963.
Griffiths, MD (2018). Is the buying of loot boxes in video games a form of gambling or gaming? Gaming Law Review 22, 5254.
Griffiths, MD, Davies, MN, Chappell, D (2004a). Demographic factors and playing variables in online computer gaming. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 7, 479487.
Griffiths, MD, Davies, MN, Chappell, D (2004b). Online computer gaming: a comparison of adolescent and adult gamers. Journal of Adolescence 27, 8796.
Griffiths, MD, Meredith, A (2009). Videogame addiction and its treatment. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy 39, 247253.
Grüsser, SM, Thalemann, R, Griffiths, MD (2006). Excessive computer game playing: evidence for addiction and aggression?. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 10, 290292.
Hamari, J, Sjöblom, M (2017). What is eSports and why do people watch it? Internet Research 27, 211232.
Hussain, Z, Griffiths, MD, Baguley, T (2012). Online gaming addiction: classification, prediction and associated risk factors. Addiction Research & Theory 20, 359371.
Kelleher, L (2019). Irish teenagers being treated for gaming addiction as psychiatrists warn disorder is becoming more common. (https://www.irishmirror.ie/news/irish-news/irish-teenagers-being-treated-gaming-14009893).
Kim, NR, Hwang, SS-H, Choi, J-S, Kim, D-J, Demetrovics, Z, Király, O, Nagygyörgy, K, Griffiths, MD, Hyun, SY, Youn, HC (2016). Characteristics and psychiatric symptoms of Internet gaming disorder among adults using self-reported DSM-5 criteria. Psychiatry Investigation 13, 58.
King, DL, Delfabbro, PH (2018). The concept of ‘harm’ in Internet gaming disorder. Journal of Behavioral Addictions 7, 562564.
Király, O, Sleczka, P, Pontes, HM, Urbán, R, Griffiths, MD, Demetrovics, Z (2017). Validation of the ten-item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10) and evaluation of the nine DSM-5 Internet Gaming Disorder criteria. Addictive Behaviors 64, 253260.
Király, O, Urbán, R, Griffiths, MD, Ágoston, C, Nagygyörgy, K, Kökönyei, G, Demetrovics, Z (2015). The mediating effect of gaming motivation between psychiatric symptoms and problematic online gaming: an online survey. Journal of Medical Internet Research 17, e88.
Lanier, L (2019). Video games could be a $300 billion industry by 2025. Variety.com (https://variety.com/2019/gaming/news/video-games-300-billion-industry-2025-report-1203202672/)
Lopez-Fernandez, O, Honrubia-Serrano, ML, Baguley, T, Griffiths, MD (2014). Pathological video game playing in Spanish and British adolescents: towards the exploration of Internet Gaming Disorder symptomatology. Computers in Human Behavior 41, 304312.
Lopez-Fernandez, O, Männikkö, N, Kääriäinen, M, Griffiths, MD, Kuss, DJ (2018). Mobile gaming and problematic smartphone use: A comparative study between Belgium and Finland. Journal of Behavioral Addictions 7, 8899.
Mamun, MA, Griffiths, MD (2019). The psychosocial impact of extreme gaming on Indian PUGB gamers: the case of PUGB (PlayerUnknown’s Battlegrounds). International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 15. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00102-4)
Meng, J, Williams, D, Shen, C (2015). Channels matter: multimodal connectedness, types of co-players and social capital for Multiplayer Online Battle Arena gamers. Computers in Human Behavior 52, 190199.
Mentzoni, RA, Brunborg, GS, Molde, H, Myrseth, H, Skouverøe, KJM, Hetland, J, Pallesen, S (2011). Problematic video game use: estimated prevalence and associations with mental and physical health. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 14, 591596.
Mihara, S, Higuchi, S (2017). Cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies of internet gaming disorder: a systematic review of the literature. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 71, 425444.
Nuyens, F, Deleuze, J, Maurage, P, Griffiths, MD, Kuss, DJ, Billieux, J (2016). Impulsivity in multiplayer online battle arena gamers: preliminary results on experimental and self-report measures. Journal of Behavioural Addictions 5, 351356.
O’Brien, C (2019). Esports growth sees 22% of adults watching or participating – survey. (https://www.irishtimes.com/business/technology/esports-growth-sees-22-of-adults-watching-or-participating-survey-1.4055320).
Pollak, S, Gallagher, C (2019). Fortnite World Cup: Irish teenager wins $50,000 prize. The Irish Times. (https://www.irishtimes.com/business/technology/fortnite-world-cup-irish-teenager-wins-50–000-prize-1.3969972)
Pontes, HM, Griffiths, MD (2015). Measuring DSM-5 Internet gaming disorder: development and validation of a short psychometric scale. Computers in Human Behavior 45, 137143.
Pontes, HM, Kiraly, O, Demetrovics, Z, Griffiths, MD (2014). The conceptualisation and measurement of DSM-5 Internet Gaming Disorder: the development of the IGD-20 Test. PloS One 9, e110137.
Wepc (2019). 2019 video game industry statistics, trends & data (https://www.wepc.com/news/video-game-statistics/).
World Health Organization (2018). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (11th Revision) - 6C51 Gaming Disorder. (https://icd.who.int/browse11/l-m/en#/http://id.who.int/icd/entity/1448597234).

Keywords

A descriptive survey of online gaming characteristics and gaming disorder in Ireland

  • David Columb (a1), Mark D Griffiths (a2) and Colin O’Gara (a1) (a3)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.