Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

A comparison of undergraduate teaching of psychiatry across medical schools in the Republic of Ireland

  • F. Byrne (a1), R. Murphy (a1), L. O’Rourke (a2), D. Cotter (a2), K. C. Murphy (a2), A. Guerandel (a3), D. Meagher (a4), E. Sweeney (a5), M. Gill (a5), A. Campbell (a6), C. McDonald (a1) and B. Hallahan (a1)...

Abstract

Objectives

To examine the delivery and assessment of psychiatry at undergraduate level in the six medical schools in the Republic of Ireland offering a medical degree programme.

Methods

A narrative description of the delivery and assessment of psychiatry at undergraduate level by collaborative senior faculty members from all six universities in Ireland.

Results

Psychiatry is integrated to varying degrees across all medical schools. Clinical experience in general adult psychiatry and sub-specialities is provided by each medical school; however, the duration of clinical attachment varies, and the provision of some sub-specialities (i.e. forensic psychiatry) is dependent on locally available resources. Five medical schools provide ‘live’ large group teaching sessions (lectures), and all medical schools provide an array of small group teaching sessions. Continuous assessment encompasses 10–35% of the total assessment marks, depending on the medical school. Only one medical school does not provide a clinical examination in the form of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination with viva examinations occurring at three medical schools.

Conclusions

Many similarities exist in relation to the delivery of psychiatry at undergraduate level in Ireland. Significant variability exists in relation to assessment with differences in continuous assessment, written and clinical exams and the use of vivas noted. The use of e-learning platforms has increased significantly in recent years, with their role envisaged to include cross-disciplinary teaching sessions and analysis of examinations and individual components within examinations which will help refine future examinations and enable greater sharing of resources between medical schools.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: B. Hallahan, Department of Psychiatry, Clinical Science Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland. (Email: brian.hallahan@nuigalway.ie)

References

Hide All
Al-Wardy, NM (2010). Assessment methods in undergraduate medical education. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal 10, 203209.
Amiel, GE, Tann, M, Krausz, MM, Bitterman, A, Cohen, R (1997). Increasing examiner involvement in an Objective Structured Clinical Examination by integrating a structured oral examination. The American Journal of Surgery 173, 546549.
Anastakis, DJ, Cohen, R, Reznick, RK (1991). The structured oral examination as a method for assessing surgical residents. The American Journal of Surgery 162, 6770.
Benning, T, Broadhurst, M (2007). The long case is dead – long live the long case. The Psychiatrist 31, 441442.
Bligh, DA (1998). What’s the Use of Lectures?. Intellect Books, Jossey-Bass Publishers: San Francisco, CA.
Bloom, BS (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Vol. 1: Cognitive Domain. McKay: New York.
Brookfield, SD, Preskill, S (1999). Discussion as a Way of Teaching. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco, CA.
Brown, G, Manogue, M (2001). AMEE Medical Education Guide No. 22: refreshing lecturing: a guide for lecturers. Medical Teacher 23, 231244.
Brown, GA, Bull, J, Pendlebury, M (2013). Assessing Student Learning in Higher Education. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group: London and New York.
Byszewski, A, Hendelman, W, McGuinty, C, Moineau, G (2012). Wanted: role models-medical students’ perceptions of professionalism. BMC Medical Education 12, 115.
Cantillon, P (2003). ABC of learning and teaching in medicine: teaching large groups. British Medical Journal 326, 437.
Chumley-Jones, HS, Dobbie, A, Alford, CL (2002). Web‐based learning: sound educational method or hype? A review of the evaluation literature. Academic Medicine 77, S86S93.
Cohen, A, Wollack, J (2000). Handbook on Test Development: Helpful Tips for Creating Reliable and Valid Classroom Tests. Center for Placement Testing, University of Wisconsin: Madison, WI.
Colton, T, Peterson, OL (1967). An assay of medical students’ abilities by oral examination. Academic Medicine 42, 10051014.
Crosby, RHJ (2000). AMEE Guide No 20: the good teacher is more than a lecturer – the twelve roles of the teacher. Medical Teacher 22, 334347.
Daelmans, HE, Scherpbier, AJ, Vleuten, CPVD, Donker, AJ (2001). Reliability of clinical oral examinations re-examined. Medical Teacher 23, 422424.
Davis, MH, Karunathilake, I (2005). The place of the oral examination in today’s assessment systems. Medical Teacher 27, 294297.
Dein, K, Livingston, G, Bench, C (2007). ‘Why did I become a psychiatrist?’: survey of consultant psychiatrists. The Psychiatrist 31, 227230.
Des Marchais, JE, Jean, P (1993). Effects of examiner training on open‐ended, higher taxonomic level questioning in oral certification examinations. Teaching and Learning in Medicine: An International Journal 5, 2428.
Eagles, JM, Wilson, S, Murdoch, JM, Brown, T (2007). What impact do undergraduate experiences have upon recruitment into psychiatry? Psychiatric Bulletin 31, 7072.
Edmunds, S, Brown, G (2010). Effective small group learning: AMEE Guide No. 48. Medical Teacher 32, 715726.
Foster, JT, Abrahamson, S, Lass, S, Girard, R, Garrís, R (1969). Analysis of an oral examination used in specialty board certification. Academic Medicine 44, 951954.
Franklin, DS, Gibson, JW, Samuel, JC, Teeter, WA, Clarkson, CW (2011). Use of lecture recordings in medical education. Medical Science Educator 21, 2128.
Goldacre, MJ, Fazel, S, Smith, F, Lambert, T (2013). Choice and rejection of psychiatry as a career: surveys of UK medical graduates from 1974 to 2009. British Journal of Psychiatry 202, 228234.
Gupta, A, Saks, NS (2013). Exploring medical student decisions regarding attending live lectures and using recorded lectures. Medical Teacher 35, 767771.
Hafferty, FW, Franks, R (1994). The hidden curriculum, ethics teaching, and the structure of medical education. Academic Medicine 69, 861871.
Harden, R (2000). The integration ladder: a tool for curriculum planning and evaluation. Medical Education 34, 551557.
Harden, R, Stevenson, M, Downie, WW, Wilson, G (1975). Assessment of clinical competence using objective structured examination. British Medical Journal 1, 447451.
Harper, R (2003). Multiple choice questions – a reprieve. Bioscience Education E-Journal 2, 16.
Hodges, B (2003). Validity and the OSCE. Medical Teacher 25, 250254.
Hutchinson, L (2003)). ABC of learning and teaching: educational environment. British Medical Journal 326, 810812.
Jaques, D (2003). ABC of learning and teaching in medicine: teaching small groups. BMJ 326, 492494.
Karim, K, Edwards, R, Dogra, N, Anderson, I, Davies, T, Lindsay, J, Ring, H, Cavendish, S (2009). A survey of the teaching and assessment of undergraduate psychiatry in the medical schools of the United Kingdom and Ireland. Medical Teacher 31, 10241029.
Kearney, RA, Puchalski, SA, Yang, HY, Skakun, EN (2002). The inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of a new Canadian oral examination format in anesthesia is fair to good. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia 49, 232236.
Kelley, PR Jr, Matthews, JH, Schumacher, CF (1971). Analysis of the oral examination of the American Board of Anesthesiology. Academic Medicine 46, 982988.
Kerfoot, BP, Baker, H, Jackson, TL, Hulbert, WC, Federman, DD, Oates, RD, DeWolf, WC (2006). A multi-institutional randomized controlled trial of adjuvant web-based teaching to medical students. Academic Medicine 81, 224230.
King, A (1993). From sage on the stage to guide on the side. College Teaching 41, 3035.
Lovell, K, Plantegenest, G (2009). Student utilization of digital versions of classroom lectures. Jiamse 19, 2025.
Martin, JB (2002). The integration of neurology, psychiatry, and neuroscience in the 21st century. American Journal of Psychiatry 159, 695704.
Marwaha, S (2011). Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs), psychiatry and the Clinical Assessment of Skills and Competencies (CASC) same evidence, different judgement. BMC Psychiatry 11, 85.
Medical Council (2008–2013). Medical education, training and practice in Ireland. 2008–2013: a progress report. Medical Council (http://www.medicalcouncil.ie/Education/Career-Stage/Medical-Education-Training-and-Practice-in-Ireland-.pdf). Accessed 5 November 2015.
O’Connor, K, O’Loughlin, K, Somers, C, Wilson, L, Pillay, D, Brennan, D, Clarke, M, Guerandel, A, Casey, P, MAlone, K, Lane, A (2012). Attitudes of medical students in Ireland towards psychiatry: comparison of students from 1994 and 2010. The Psychiatrist 36, 349356.
O’Sullivan, H, Van Mook, W, Fewtrell, R, Wass, V (2012). Integrating professionalism into the curriculum: AMEE Guide No. 61. Medical Teacher 34, 6477.
Pokorny, AD, Frazier, SH Jr (1966). An evaluation of oral examinations. Academic Medicine 41, 2840.
Ruiz, JG, Mintzer, MJ, Leipzig, RM (2006). The impact of E-learning in medical education. Academic Medicine 81, 207212.
Schreiber, B, Fukuta, J, Gordon, F (2010). Live lecture versus video podcast in undergraduate medical education: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Medical Education 10, 68.
Schuwirth, LW, Van Der Vleuten, CP (2004). Different written assessment methods: what can be said about their strengths and weaknesses? Medical Education 38, 974979.
Stillman, RM, Lane, KM, Beeth, S, Jaffe, BM (1983). Evaluation of the student: improving validity of the oral examination. Surgery 93, 439442.
Subramanian, A, Timberlake, M, Mittakanti, H, Lara, M, Brandt, ML (2012). Novel educational approach for medical students: improved retention rates using interactive medical software compared with traditional lecture-based format. Journal of Surgical Education 69, 253256.
Swanson, DB (1987). A measurement framework for performance-based tests. In Further Developments in Assessing Clinical Competence (ed. Hart I and Harden R), pp. 1345. Heal Publications: Montreal.
Thomas, CS, Mellsop, G, Callender, K, Crawshaw, J, Ellis, P, Hall, A, MacDonald, J, Silfverskiold, P (1993). The oral examination: a study of academic and non‐academic factors. Medical Education 27, 433439.
Volpe, T, Boydell, KM, Pignatiello, A (2013). Choosing child and adolescent psychiatry: factors influencing medical students. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 22, 260267.
Wakeford, R, Southgate, L, Wass, V (1995). Improving oral examinations: selecting, training, and monitoring examiners for the MRCGP. Royal College of General Practitioners. British Medical Journal 311, 931935.
Walters, K, Raven, P, Rosenthal, J, Russell, J, Humphrey, C, Buszewicz, M (2007). Teaching undergraduate psychiatry in primary care: the impact on student learning and attitudes. Medical Education 41, 100108.
Walton, H (1999). Core curriculum in psychiatry for medical students. Medical Education 33, 204211.
Wass, V, Wakeford, R, Neighbour, R, Van der Vleuten, C (2003). Achieving acceptable reliability in oral examinations: an analysis of the Royal College of General Practitioners membership examination’s oral component. Medical Education 37, 126131.
Weisse, AB (2002). The oral examination: awesome or awful? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 45, 569578.
Wilson, S, Eagles, JM. (2008). Changes in undergraduate clinical psychiatry teaching in Scotland since ‘Tomorrow’s doctors’. Scottish Medical Journal 53, 2225.
Wood, EJ (2003). What are the Extended Matching Set Questions? Bioscience Education e-Journal 1, 18.
World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) (2003). Basic medical education, WFME global standards for quality improvement (http://www.iaomc.org/wfme.htm).
Young, JR (2008). Blackboard customers consider alternatives. Chronicle of Higher Education 55, A1.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed