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A Chinese perspective on cyber war

  • Li Zhang



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1 ‘International Strategy for Cyberspace – Prosperity, Security and Openness in a Networked World’, The White House, May 2011, available at: All internet references were accessed in September 2012, unless otherwise stated.

2 Ibid., p. 14.

3 In the 1990s, some scholars in the United Kingdom and United States proposed the concept of ‘cyber power’ or ‘information power’. See Jordan, Tim, Cyberpower: The Culture and Politics of Cyberspace and the Internet, Routledge, London/New York, 1999; Nye, Joseph S., The Paradox of American Power: Why the World's Only Superpower Can't Go it Alone, Oxford University Press, Oxford/New York, 2002; Kramer, Franklin, Starr, Stuart, and Wentz, Larry K. (eds.), Cyberpower and National Security, National Defense University Press, Potomac Books, Washington, DC, 2009.

4 Available (only in Chinese) at:

6 Menn, Joseph, ‘Defence groups turn to cybersecurity’, in The Financial Times, 10 October 2011, available at:

7 ‘U.S., Australia to add cyber realm to defense treaty’, in Reuters, 14 September 2011, available at:

8 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China, ‘China, Russia and other countries submit the document of International Code of Conduct for Information Security to the United Nations’, 19 March 2011, available at:

9 Speech by HE Ambassador Wang Qun at the First Committee of the 66th Session of the UN General Asssembly on Information and Cyberspace Security, New York, 20 October 2011, available at:

10 See Sterling, Bruce, ‘Cyberspace with Chinese characteristics’, in Wired, 8 October 2012, available at:; and

11 Office of the Vice-President, ‘VP's remarks to London Cyberspace Conference’, The White House, 1 November 2011, transcript and video available at:

12 Secretary of Treaty and Law of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Huang Huikang's speech in Budapest, available at:



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