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3 In the 1990s, some scholars in the United Kingdom and United States proposed the concept of ‘cyber power’ or ‘information power’. See Jordan, Tim, Cyberpower: The Culture and Politics of Cyberspace and the Internet, Routledge, London/New York, 1999; Nye, Joseph S., The Paradox of American Power: Why the World's Only Superpower Can't Go it Alone, Oxford University Press, Oxford/New York, 2002; Kramer, Franklin, Starr, Stuart, and Wentz, Larry K. (eds.), Cyberpower and National Security, National Defense University Press, Potomac Books, Washington, DC, 2009.
8 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China, ‘China, Russia and other countries submit the document of International Code of Conduct for Information Security to the United Nations’, 19 March 2011, available at: http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/zxxx/t858978.htm.