Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Risk factors of geriatric depression in rural China based on a generalized estimating equation

  • Dongdong Zhao (a1), Caiyun Hu (a2), Jian Chen (a3), Bao Dong (a1), Qiongqiong Ren (a1), Dandan Yu (a1), Yuanyuan Zhao (a1) (a4), Jie Li (a1), Yujun Huang (a1) (a5) and Yehuan Sun (a1) (a6)...

Abstract

Background:

The number of elderly individuals living in China is increasing rapidly. The aim of this study was to examine the potential risk factors of geriatric depression in rural areas.

Methods:

A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2015 and October 2016 in rural China. Nine hundred forty-five elderly individuals were included in both investigations. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to examine the relationships between geriatric depression and socio-demographics, the number of chronic diseases, ADL (Activity of Daily Living) disability, cognitive impairment, and anxiety.

Results:

Among the participants, the majority was female (61.4%) and illiterate (81.5%) and had a general economic status (63.0%) and more than two kinds of chronic diseases (62.9%). The bivariate analysis indicated that geriatric depression was associated with social support, education level, economic status, ADL disability, anxiety disorders, and cognitive impairment at both survey time points. The GEE results showed that poor economic status (OR = 8.294, p < 0.001), the presence of more than two chronic diseases (OR = 1.681, p = 0.048), ADL disability (OR = 2.184, p < 0.001), cognitive impairment (OR = 1.921, p < 0.001), and anxiety (OR = 5.434, p < 0.001) were risk factors for geriatric depression in rural China; better social support (OR = 0.924, 95% CI = 0.899–0.949, p < 0.001) was found to be a protective factor.

Conclusions:

Geriatric depression in rural China was associated with several socio-demographic, physical, and mental factors. Targeted interventions are essential to improve the psychological health of aged individuals in rural China.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Risk factors of geriatric depression in rural China based on a generalized estimating equation
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Risk factors of geriatric depression in rural China based on a generalized estimating equation
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Risk factors of geriatric depression in rural China based on a generalized estimating equation
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: Yehuan Sun, Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, No. 81, Meishan Road, Hefei, Anhui 230032, China. Phone/Fax: +86-551-65167725. Email: yhsun_ahmu_edu@yeah.net.

Footnotes

Hide All
*

Dongdong Zhao and Caiyun Hu contributed equally to this work.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Akhtar, H., Khan, A. M., Vaidhyanathan, K. V., Chhabra, P. and Kannan, A. T. (2013). Socio-demographic predictors of depression among the elderly patients attending out patient departments of a tertiary hospital in North India. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 4, 971975.
Alexopoulos, G. S. (2005). Depression in the elderly. Lancet, 365, 19611970.
Behera, P., Sharan, P., Mishra, A. K., Nongkynrih, B., Kant, S. and Gupta, S. K. (2016). Prevalence and determinants of depression among elderly persons in a rural community from northern India. National Medical Journal of India, 29, 129135.
Blazer, D. G., Hybels, C. F. and Pieper, C. F. (2001). The association of depression and mortality in elderly persons: a case for multiple, independent pathways. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 56, M505–M509.
Chan, A. C. (1996). Clinical validation of the Geriatric depression scale (GDS): Chinese version. Journal of Aging and Health, 8, 238253.
Chao, S. F. (2011). Assessing social support and depressive symptoms in older Chinese adults: a longitudinal perspective. Aging Mental Health, 15, 765774.
Chen, R., Wei, L., Hu, Z., Qin, X., Copeland, J. R. and Hemingway, H. (2005). Depression in older people in rural China. Journal of Mental Health and Aging, 165, 20192025.
China National Bureau of Statistics (2015). The national economic and social development statistical bulletin in 2015. Available at: http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/zxfb/201602/t20160229_1323991.html; last accessed 29 February 2016.
Feng, L. et al. (2014). Burden and correlates of geriatric depression in the Uyghur elderly population, observation from Xinjiang, China. PLoS One, 9, e114139.
Goes, V. F., Wazlawik, E., D'Orsi, E. and Gonzalez-Chica, D. A. (2017). Severe obesity increases the prevalence but not the incidence of depressive symptoms in the elderly-population-based cohort in Southern Brazil. International Psychogeriatric, 110.
He, G., Xie, J. F., Zhou, J. D., Zhong, Z. Q., Qin, C. X. and Ding, S. Q. (2016). Depression in left-behind elderly in rural China: prevalence and associated factors. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 16, 638643.
Jacobson, N. C. and Newman, M. G. (2014). Avoidance mediates the relationship between anxiety and depression over a decade later. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 28, 437445.
Jorm, A. F. (2000). Is depression a risk factor for dementia or cognitive decline? A review. Gerontology, 46, 219227.
Katzman, R. et al. (1988). A Chinese version of the mini-mental state examination; impact of illiteracy in a Shanghai dementia survey. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 41, 971978.
Kim, B. S. et al. (2014). Impact of illiteracy on depression symptomatology in community-dwelling older adults. International Psychogeriatric, 26, 16691678.
Kuehner, C. (2003). Gender differences in unipolar depression: an update of epidemiological findings and possible explanations. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 108, 163174.
Lawton, M. P. and Brody, E. M. (1969). Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist, 9, 179186.
Li, S. et al. (2012). Subjective well-being of the elderly in Xi Cheng district, Beijing. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry, 24, 335346.
Llewellyn, D. J. et al. (2010). Vitamin D and risk of cognitive decline in elderly persons. Archives of Internal Medicine, 170, 11351141.
Ma, L. et al. (2015). Risk factors for depression among elderly subjects with hypertension living at home in China. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 8, 29232928.
Martel, M. M. (2013). Sexual selection and sex differences in the prevalence of childhood externalizing and adolescent internalizing disorders. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 12211259.
Mirza, S. S. et al. (2014). Depressive symptoms predict incident dementia during short- but not long-term follow-up period. Alzheimers Dementia, 10, S323–S329.e321.
Mirza, S. S., Ikram, M. A., Bos, D., Mihaescu, R., Hofman, A. and Tiemeier, H. (2017). Mild cognitive impairment and risk of depression and anxiety: a population-based study. Alzheimers Dementia, 13, 130139.
Moss, K., Scogin, F., Di Napoli, E. and Presnell, A. (2012). A self-help behavioral activation treatment for geriatric depressive symptoms. Aging Mental Health, 16, 625635.
Schoevers, R. A., Beekman, A. T., Deeg, D. J., Geerlings, M. I., Jonker, C. and Van Tilburg, W. (2000). Risk factors for depression in later life; results of a prospective community based study (AMSTEL). Journal of Affective Disorders, 59, 127137.
Sheikh, J. I. and Yesavage, J. A. (1986). Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-SF): recent evidence and development of a shorter version. Clinical Gerontology, 5, 165173.
Spira, A. P., Rebok, G. W., Stone, K. L., Kramer, J. H. and Yaffe, K. (2012). Depressive symptoms in oldest-old women: risk of mild cognitive impairment and dementia. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20, 10061015.
Starr, L. R. and Davila, J. (2012). Temporal patterns of anxious and depressed mood in generalized anxiety disorder: a daily diary study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50, 131141.
Starr, L. R., Hammen, C., Connolly, N. P. and Brennan, P. A. (2014). Does relational dysfunction mediate the association between anxiety disorders and later depression? testing an interpersonal model of comorbidity. Depression Anxiety, 31, 7786.
Steenland, K., Karnes, C., Seals, R., Carnevale, C., Hermida, A. and Levey, A. (2012). Late-life depression as a risk factor for mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease in 30 US Alzheimer's disease centers. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 31, 265275.
Steinert, C., Hofmann, M., Kruse, J. and Leichsenring, F. (2014). The prospective long-term course of adult depression in general practice and the community. A systematic literature review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 152–154, 6575.
Sun, X. Y., Li, Y. X., Yu, C. Q. and Li, L. M. (2017). Reliability and validity of depression scales of Chinese version: a systematic review. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi, 38, 110116.
Taheri Tanjanai, P., Moradinazar, M. and Najafi, F. (2017). Prevalence of depression and related social and physical factors amongst the Iranian elderly population in 2012. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 17, 126131.
United Nations (2014). World population ageing: 1950–2050 [cited 11 October 2014]. Available at: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/worldageing19502050/.
Wang, J. L. (2004). Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of major depression and associated impairment. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 39, 1925.
Weyerer, S. et al. (2008). Prevalence and risk factors for depression in non-demented primary care attenders aged 75 years and older. Journal of Affective Disorders, 111, 153163.
WHO Ageing and Life Course (2015). Facts on ageing and life course. Available at: www.who.int/features/factfiles/ageing/ageing_facts/en/index.html last accessed 10 January 2015.
World Health Organization (2012). Depression: A global crisis. World Mental Health Day,10 October 2012:World Federation for Mental Health; 2012:14. Available at: http://wfmh.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/2012_wmhday_english.pdf last accessed 14 January 2015.
Xiao, S. Y. (1993). The social support rate scale. Chinese Journal of Psychology, 7 (Suppl.), 4246.
Xie, L. Q., Zhang, J. P., Peng, F. and Jiao, N. N. (2010). Prevalence and related influencing factors of depressive symptoms for empty-nest elderly living in the rural area of YongZhou, China. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 50, 2429.
Xu, H., Xiao, S. and Chen, J. (2000). Epidemiological study on committed suicide among the elderly in some urban and rural areas of Hunan Province. Chinese Mental Health, 14, 121124.
Xu, Y. et al. (2016). Decomposing socioeconomic inequalities in depressive symptoms among the elderly in China. BMC Public Health, 16, 1214.
Yusuf, A. J., Isa, M. S., Amedu, M. A., Nuhu, F. T. and Garko, S. B. (2013). Late life depression among elderly hypertensive patients. Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal, 20, 208213.
Zhang, B. and Li, J. (2011). Gender and marital status differences in depressive symptoms among elderly adults: the roles of family support and friend support. Aging Mental Health, 15, 844854.
Zhao, Y. et al. (2017). Associations of self-neglect with quality of life in older people in rural China: a cross-sectional study. International Psychogeriatric, 112.
Zung, W. W. (1971). A rating instrument for anxiety disorders. Psychosomatics, 12, 371379.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed