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The recency ratio as predictor of early MCI

  • Davide Bruno (a1), Rebecca L. Koscik (a2), John L. Woodard (a3), Nunzio Pomara (a4) (a5) and Sterling C. Johnson (a2) (a6) (a7)...



Individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) present poor immediate primacy recall accompanied by intact or exaggerated recency, which then tends to decline after a delay. Bruno et al. (Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, Vol. 38, 2016, pp. 967–973) have shown that higher ratio scores between immediate and delayed recency (i.e. the recency ratio; Rr) are associated with cognitive decline in high-functioning older individuals. We tested whether Rr predicted conversion to early mild cognitive impairment (early MCI) from a cognitively healthy baseline.


Data were analyzed longitudinally with binomial regression. Baseline scores were used to predict conversion to early MCI after approximately nine years. Setting: Data were collected at the Wisconsin Registry of Alzheimer's Prevention, in Madison, Wisconsin.


For the study, 427 individuals were included in the analysis; all participants were 50 years of age or older and cognitively intact at baseline, and were native English speakers.


Memory data were collected using the Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and the early MCI diagnosis was obtained via consensus conference.


Our results showed that higher Rr scores are correlated with greater risk of later early MCI diagnosis, and this association is independent of total recall performance.


Rr is an emerging cognitive marker of cognitive decline.


Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: Davide Bruno, Ph.D., School of Natural Science and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University Liverpool, UK. Phone: +44 (0)151 904 6320. Email:


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The recency ratio as predictor of early MCI

  • Davide Bruno (a1), Rebecca L. Koscik (a2), John L. Woodard (a3), Nunzio Pomara (a4) (a5) and Sterling C. Johnson (a2) (a6) (a7)...


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