Alexopoulous, G., Streim, J., Carpenter, D. and Docherty, J. (2004). Using antipsychotic agents in older patients. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65 (Suppl. 2), 5–99.
Allison, D. et al. (1999). Antipsychotic-induced weight gain: a comprehensive research synthesis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1686–1696.
Alvarez-Jimenez, M. et al. (2008). Antipsychotic-induced weight gain in chronic and first-episode psychotic disorders: a systematic critical reappraisal. CNS Drugs, 22, 547–562.
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Association CP (2012). Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties (CPS). Canada: Canadian Pharmacists Association.
Balf, G. (2008). Olanzapine treatment and weight gain: considering the lipid side effects of antipsychotics. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 1206–1207.
Barak, Y. and Aizenberg, D. (2003). Effects of olanzapine on lipid abnormalities in elderly psychotic patients. Drugs & Aging, 20, 893–896.
Bissells, G., Staekenborg, S., Brunner, E., Brayne, C. and Scheltens, P. (2006). Risk of dementia in diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Lancet Neurology, 16, 693–704.
Braadvedt, G. et al. (2012). Understanding the new HbA1c units for the diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes. The New Zealand Medical Journal, 125, 70–80.
Cohn, T. and Sernyak, M. (2006). Metabolic monitoring for patients treated with antipsychotic medications. Canada Journal of Psychiatry, 51, 492–501.
Copeland, L., Parchman, M., Zeber, J., Lawrence, V., Downs, J. and Miller, A. (2010). Prediabetes assessment and follow-up in older veterans with schizophrenia. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18, 887–896.
De Deyn, P. et al. (2004). Olanzapine versus placebo in the treatment of psychosis with or without associated behavioural disturbances in patients with Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19, 115–126.
Deberdt, W. et al. (2005). Comparsion of olanzapine and risperidone in the treatment of psychosis and associated behavioural disturbances in patients with dementia. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13, 722–730.
Dixon, L. et al. (2000). Prevalence and correlates of diabetes in national schizophrenia samples. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 26, 903–912.
Erickson, S. C. et al. (2012). New-onset treatment-dependent diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia associated with atypical antipsychotic use in older adults without schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60, 474–479.
Feldman, P., Hay, L., Deberdt, W. and Kennedy, J. (2004). Retrospective cohort study of diabetes mellitus and antipsychotic treatment in a geriatric population in the United States. Journal of American Medical Directors Association, 5, 38–46.
Goldberg, R. (2001). Weight variance associated with atypical neuroleptics in nursing home dementia patients. Journal of American Medical Directors Association, 24, 201–209.
Guenette, M., Hahn, M., Cohn, T., Teo, C. and Remington, G. (2013). Atypical antipsychotics and diabetic ketoacidosis: a review. Psychopharmacology, 226, 1–12.
Guenette, M. D., Chintoh, A., Remington, G. and Hahn, M. (2014). Atypical antipsychotic-induced metabolic disturbances in the elderly. Drugs & Aging, 31, 159–184.
Gurevitz, S., Costakis, T. and Leiter, J. (2009). Do atypical antipsychotics cause weight gain in nursing home dementia residents? Consultant Pharmacist, 24, 201–209.
Hammerman, A., Dreiher, J., Klang, S., Cunitz, H., Cohen, A. and Goldfracht, M. (2008). Antipsychotics and diabetes: an age-related association. Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 42, 1316–1322.
Harris, E. and Barraclough, B. (1998). Excess mortality of mental disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 173, 11–53.
Holt, R. (2008). The metabolic side effects of antipsychotics in elderly patients. Geriatric Medicine, July, 399–402.
Hwang, J., Yang, C., Lee, T. and Thai, S. (2003). The efficacy and safety of olanzapine for the treatment of geriatric psychosis. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 23, 113–118.
Kennedy, J., Bymaster, F., Schuh, L. and Calligaro, D. (2001). A current review of olanzapine's safety in the geriatric patient: from pre-clinical pharmacology to clinical data. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16, S33–S61.
Kinon, B., Basson, B. R., Gilmore, J. A. and Tollefson, G. D. (2001). Long-term olanzapine treatment: weight change and weight-related health factors in schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62, 92–100.
Kisely, S., Cox, M., Campbell, L., Cooke, C. and Gardner, D. (2009). An epidemiologic study of psychotropic medication and obesity-related chronic illnesses in older psychiatric patients. Canada Journal of Psychiatry, 54, 269–274.
Lipscombe, L. et al. (2009). Antipsychotic drugs and hyperglycemia in older patients with diabetes. Archives of Internal Medicine, 169, 1282–1289.
Lipscombe, L. et al. (2011). Antipsychotic drugs and the risk of hyperglyecemia in older adults without diabetes: a population-based observational study. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19, 1026–1033.
Marder, S. et al. (2004). Physical health monitoring of patients with schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 16, 1334–1349.
Martinez, R., Peris Martí, J. F., Gomar Fayos, J., Navarro Gosalbez, M., Quintana Vargas, I. and Muelas Tirado, J. (2010). Utilisation of atypical antipsychotic drugs in institutionalised elderly persons and prevalance of metabolic alterations. Farmacia Hospitalaria, 24, 139–147.
McIntyre, R., McCann, S. and Kennedy, S. (2001). Antipsychotic metabolic effects: weight gain, diabetes mellitus, and lipid abnormalities. Canada Journal of Psychiatry, 46, 273–281.
Mitchell, A., Delaffon, V., Vancampfort, D., Correll, C. and De Hert, M. (2012). Guideline concordant monitoring of metabolic risk in peopel treated with antipsychotic medication: a systematic review and meta-analysis of screening practices. Psychological Medicine, 42, 125–147.
Morris, J. (1993). The clinical dementia rating (CDR): current version and scoring rules. Neurology, 43, 2412–2414.
Newcomer, J. (2005). Second generation (atypical) antipsychotics and metabolic effects: a comprehensive literature review. CNS Drugs, 19 (Suppl. 1), 1–93.
Newman, S. and Bland, R. (1991). Mortality in a cohort of patients with schizophrenia: a record linkage study. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 36, 239–245.
Sernyak, M., Leslie, D., Alarcon, R., Losonczy, M. and Rosenheck, R. (2002). Association of diabetes mellitus with use of atypical neuroleptics in the treatment of schizophrenia. Americal Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 561–566.
Smith, E. et al. (2008). Weight gain during olanzapine treatment for psychotic depression: effects of dose and age. International Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 23, 130–137.
Street, J., Clark, W. and Gannon, K. (2000). Olanzapine treatment of psychotic and behavioural symptoms in patients with Alzheimer disease in nursing care facilities: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. The HGEU Study Group. Archives of General Psychiatry Journal, 57, 968–976.
Vidarsdottir, S., deLeeuw van Weenen, J., Frolich, M., Roelfzema, F., Romijn, J. and Pijl, H. (2010a). Effects of olanzapine and haloperidol on the metabolic status of healthy men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 95, 118–125.
Vidarsdottir, S., Vlug, P., Roelfzema, F., Frolich, M. and Pijl, H. (2010b). Orally disintegrating and oral standard olanzapine tablets similarly elevate the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index and plasma triglyceride levels in 12 healthy men: a randomized crossover study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 71, 1205–1211.
Vik-Mo, A., Birenaes, A., Ferno, J., Jonsdottir, H., Andreassen, O. and Steen, V. (2008). Increased expression or biosynthesis genes in peripheral blood cells of olanzapine-treated patients. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 11, 679–684.
White, H., Pieper, C. and Schmader, K. (1998). The association of weight change in Alzheimer's disease with severity of disease and mortality: a longitudinal analysis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 46, 1223–1227.
Woods, S. W. (2013). Chlorpromazine equivalent doses for the newer atypical antipsychotics. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64 (6), 663–667.
Yang, C., Tsai, S. and Hwang, J. (2005). The efficacy and safety of quetiapine for treatment of geriatric psychosis. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 19, 661–666.
Zheng, L., Mack, W., Dagerman, K. and Hsiao, J. (2009). Metabolic changes associated with second-generation antipsychotic use in Alzheimer's disease patients: the CATIE-AD study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 583–590.