Several hormones have the potential for influencing the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Endocrine disorders stemming from the thyroid and parathyroid glands, for example, can be identified through screening laboratory tests, and if the underlying abnormalities are treated, symptoms may improve. The hormone that has received the greatest attention, however, regarding its potential for treating both cognitive and mood symptoms in older persons is estrogen. Recent data suggest that estrogen may facilitate treatment of depression in cognitively intact postmenopausal women and may decrease the risk of Alzheimer's disease in postmenopausal women. In part because testosterone is converted to estrogen in men, recent studies suggest that treating hypogonadal men with testosterone may improve their cognitive function.