Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Disease-specific anxiety symptomatology in Parkinson's disease

  • Nadeeka N. W. Dissanayaka (a1) (a2) (a3), John D. O'Sullivan (a2) (a4), Nancy A. Pachana (a3), Rodney Marsh (a1) (a4) (a5), Peter A. Silburn (a1) (a2) (a4), Elizabeth X. White (a1) (a4), Elizabeth Torbey (a1) (a3), George D. Mellick (a1) (a2) (a6), David A. Copland (a1) (a7) and Gerard J. Byrne (a1) (a3) (a4) (a5)...

Abstract

Background:

Symptoms of anxiety relating to Parkinson's disease (PD) occur commonly and include symptomatology associated with motor disability and complications arising from PD medication. However, there have been relatively few attempts to profile such disease-specific anxiety symptoms in PD. Consequently, anxiety in PD is underdiagnosed and undertreated. The present study characterizes PD-related anxiety symptoms to assist with the more accurate assessment and treatment of anxiety in PD.

Methods:

Ninety non-demented PD patients underwent a semi-structured diagnostic assessment targeting anxiety symptoms using relevant sections of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-plus). In addition, they were assessed for the presence of 30 PD-related anxiety symptoms derived from the literature, the clinical experience of an expert panel and the PD Anxiety-Motor Complications Questionnaire (PDAMCQ). The onset of anxiety in relation to the diagnosis of PD was determined.

Results:

Frequent (>25%) PD-specific anxiety symptoms included distress, worry, fear, agitation, embarrassment, and social withdrawal due to motor symptoms and PD medication complications, and were experienced more commonly in patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for an anxiety disorder. The onset of common anxiety disorders was observed equally before and after a diagnosis of PD. Patients in a residual group of Anxiety Not Otherwise Specified had an onset of anxiety after a diagnosis of PD.

Conclusion:

Careful characterization of PD-specific anxiety symptomatology provides a basis for conceptualizing anxiety and assists with the development of a new PD-specific measure to accurately assess anxiety in PD.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: Nadeeka Dissanayaka, The University of Queensland, UQ Centre for Clinical Research, Building 71/918 Royal Brisbane & Women's Hospital, Herston QLD4029, Brisbane, Australia. Phone: +61 7 33465577; +61 405715622. E-mail: n.dissanayaka@uq.edu.au.

References

Hide All
Ambermoon, P., Carter, A., Hall, W., Dissanayaka, N. and O'Sullivan, J. (2012). Compulsive use of dopamine replacement therapy: a model for stimulant drug addiction?. Addiction, 107, 241247.
Ambermoon, P., Carter, A., Hall, W. D., Dissanayaka, N. N. and O'Sullivan, J. D. (2011). Impulse control disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease receiving dopamine replacement therapy: evidence and implications for the addictions field. Addiction, 106, 283293.
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Berg, D. et al. (2013). Changing the research criteria for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease: obstacles and opportunities. The Lancet Neurology, 12, 514524.
Bower, J. H. et al. (2010). Anxious personality predicts an increased risk of Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders, 25, 21052113.
Brown, R. G. et al. (2011). Depression and anxiety related subtypes in Parkinson's disease. Journal Neurology Neurosurgery Psychiatry, 82, 803809.
Chen, J. J. and Marsh, L. (2014). Anxiety in Parkinson's disease: identification and management. Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders, 7, 5259.
Chen, Y. K. et al. (2010). Anxiety disorders in Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 40, 97107.
Dissanayaka, N. N., Sellbach, A., Silburn, P. A., O'Sullivan, J. D., Marsh, R. and Mellick, G. D. (2011). Factors associated with depression in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Affective Disorders, 132, 8288.
Dissanayaka, N. N., Silburn, P. A., O'Sullivan, J. D. and Mellick, G. D. (2009). Serotonin and dopamine transporter genes do not influence depression in Parkinson's disease. Movements Disorders, 24, 111115.
Dissanayaka, N. N. W., Torbey, E. and Pachana, N. (2015a). Anxiety rating scales in Parkinson's disease: a critical review updating recent literature. International Psychogeriatrics, Epub ahead of print. PMID: 26100107.
Dissanayaka, N. N. W., White, E., O'Sullivan, J. D., Marsh, R., Pachana, N. A. and Byrne, G. J. (2014). The clinical spectrum of anxiety in Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders, 29, 967975.
Dissanayaka, N. N. W. et al. (2010). Anxiety disorders in Parkinson's disease: prevalence and risk factors. Movement Disorders, 25, 838845.
Dissanayaka, N. N. W. et al. (2015b). Characteristics and treatment of anxiety disorders in Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorder Clinical Practice, 2, 155162.
Forjaz, M. J. et al. (2013). Rasch analysis of anxiety scales in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 74, 414419.
Goetz, C. G. et al. (2007). Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (MDS-UPDRS): Process, format, and clinimetric testing plan. Movement Disorders, 22, 4147.
Jacob, E. L., Gatto, N. M., Thompson, A., Bordelon, Y. and Ritz, B. (2010). Occurrence of depression and anxiety prior to Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, 16, 576581.
Kummer, A., Cardoso, F. and Teixeira, A. L. (2010). Generalized anxiety disorder and the hamilton anxiety rating scale in Parkinson's disease. Arquivos de Neuropsiquiatria, 68, 495501.
Lauterbach, E. C., Freeman, A. and Vogel, R. L. (2003). Correlates of generalized anxiety and panic attacks in dystonia and Parkinson disease. Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology, 16, 225233.
Lauterbach, E. C., Freeman, A. and Vogel, R. L. (2004). Differential DSM-III psychiatric disorder prevalence profiles in dystonia and Parkinson's disease. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 16, 2936.
Leentjens, A. F., Dujardin, K., Marsh, L., Martinez-Martin, P., Richard, I. H. and Starkstein, S. E. (2011a). Symptomatology and markers of anxiety disorders in Parkinson's disease: a cross-sectional study. Movement Disorders, 26, 484492.
Leentjens, A. F., Dujardin, K., Marsh, L., Martinez-Martin, P., Richard, I. H. and Starkstein, S. E. (2012). Anxiety and motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease: a cross-sectional observational study. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, 18, 10841088.
Leentjens, A. F., Dujardin, K., Marsh, L., Richard, I. H., Starkstein, S. E. and Martinez-Martin, P. (2011b). Anxiety rating scales in Parkinson's disease: a validation study of the Hamilton anxiety rating scale, the Beck anxiety inventory, and the hospital anxiety and depression scale. Movement Disorders, 26, 407415.
Leentjens, A. F., Dujardin, K., Pontone, G. M., Starkstein, S. E., Weintraub, D. and Martinez-Martin, P. (2014). The Parkinson anxiety scale (PAS): development and validation of a new anxiety scale. Movement Disorders, 29, 10351043.
Leentjens, A. F. et al. (2008). Anxiety rating scales in Parkinson's disease: critique and recommendations. Movement Disorders, 23, 20152025.
Macht, M., Schwarz, R. and Ellgring, H. (2005). Patterns of psychological problems in Parkinson's disease. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 111, 95101.
Marinus, J., Leentjens, A. F., Visser, M., Stiggelbout, A. M. and van Hilten, J. J. (2002). Evaluation of the hospital anxiety and depression scale in patients with Parkinson's disease. Clinical Neuropharmacology, 25, 318324.
Marsh, L. (2000). Anxiety disorders in Parkinson's disease. International Review of Psychiatry, 12, 307318.
Marsh, L., McDonald, W. M., Cummings, J. and Ravina, B. (2006). Provisional diagnostic criteria for depression in Parkinson's disease: report of an NINDS/NIMH Work Group. Movement Disorders, 21, 148158.
Martinez-Martin, P. et al. (2013). Designing a new scale to measure anxiety symptoms in Parkinson's disease: Item selection based on canonical correlation analysis. European Journal of Neurology, 20, 11981203.
Matheson, S. F. et al. (2012). Validity and reliability of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory in Parkinson's disease. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 31, 1316.
Menza, M. A., Robertson-Hoffman, D. E. and Bonapace, A. S. (1993). Parkinson's disease and anxiety: comorbidity with depression. Biological Psychiatry, 34, 465470.
Molloy, D. W., Alemayehu, E. and Roberts, R. (1991). Reliability of a standardized mini-mental-state-examination compared with the traditional mini-mental-state-examination. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 102105.
Mondolo, F., Jahanshahi, M., Grana, A., Biasutti, E., Cacciatori, E. and Di Benedetto, P. (2007). Evaluation of anxiety in Parkinson's disease with some commonly used rating scales. Neurological Sciences, 28, 270275.
Pachana, N. A. et al. (2013). Clinical issues in the treatment of anxiety and depression in older adults with Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders, 28, 19301934.
Pagonabarraga, J., Kulisevsky, J., Llebaria, G., Garcia-Sanchez, C., Pascual-Sedano, B. and Gironell, A. (2008). Parkinson's disease-cognitive rating scale: a new cognitive scale specific for Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders, 23, 9981005.
Peron, J., Dondaine, T., Le Jeune, F., Grandjean, D. and Verin, M. (2012). Emotional processing in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review. Movement Disorders, 27, 186199.
Pontone, G. M. et al. (2009). Prevalence of anxiety disorders and anxiety subtypes in patients with Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders, 24, 13331338.
Qureshi, S. U., Amspoker, A. B., Calleo, J. S., Kunik, M. E. and Marsh, L. (2012). Anxiety disorders, physical illnesses, and health care utilization in older male veterans with Parkinson disease and comorbid depression. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 25, 233239.
Sheehan, D. V. et al. (1998). The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 20 (Suppl. 59), 2233.
Starkstein, S. E. et al. (2014). Anxiety has specific syndromal profiles in Parkinson disease: a data-driven approach. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22, 14101417.
Stein, M. B., Heuser, I. J., Juncos, J. L. and Uhde, T. W. (1990). Anxiety disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 217220.
Torbey, E., Pachana, N. A. and Dissanayaka, N. N. (2015). Depression rating scales in Parkinson's disease: a critical review updating recent literature. Journal of Affective Disorders, 184, 216224.
Uitti, R. J. (2009). Parkinson's disease and issues related to driving. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, 15 (Suppl. 3), S122–125.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Psychogeriatrics
  • ISSN: 1041-6102
  • EISSN: 1741-203X
  • URL: /core/journals/international-psychogeriatrics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed