et al. (2005). The course of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia. Part II: relationships among behavioural sub-syndromes and the influence of clinical variables. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20, 531–536.
et al. (2008). Consistency of neuropsychiatric syndromes across dementias: results from the European Alzheimer disease consortium. Part II. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 25, 1–8.
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn, (DSM-IV), Text Revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Bloniecki, V., Aarsland, D., Cummings, J., Blennow, K. and Freund-Levi, Y. (2015). Agitation in dementia: relation to core cerebrospinal fluid biomarker levels. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra, 4, 335–343.
Brodaty, H., Connors, M. H., Xu, J., Woodward, M. and Ames, D.
For the PRIME Study Group (2015). The course of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: a 3-year longitudinal study. Journal of American Medical Directors Association, 16, 380–387.
Brucki, S. M. D. and Rocha, M. S. G. (2004). Category fluency test: effects of age, gender and education on total scores, clustering and switching in Brazilian Portuguese-speaking subjects. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 37, 1771–1777.
Cerejeira, J., Lagarto, L. and Mukaetova-Ladinska, E. B. (2012). Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Frontiers in Neurology, 3, 73. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2012.
Chi, S., Yub, J.-T., Tanc, M.-S. and Tan, L. (2014). Depression in Alzheimer's disease: epidemiology, mechanisms, and management. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 42, 739–755.
Cummings, J., Jutand, M. A., Onifade, C., Richard-Harston, S. and Bourdel-Marchasson, I. (2015). Agitation in cognitive disorders: International Psychogeriatric Association provisional consensus clinical and research definition. International Psychogeriatrics, 27, 7–17.
et al. (2010). Non-pharmacologic management of sleep disturbance in Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging, 14, 203–206.
Dechamps, A., Jutand, M.A., Onifade, C., Richard-Harston, S. and Bourdel-Marchasson, I. (2008). Co-occurrence of neuropsychiatric syndromes in demented and psychotic institutionalized elderly. International Journal of Geriatric. Psychiatry, 23, 1182–1190.
de Medeiros, K.
For the NPI-C Research Group (2010). The neuropsychiatric inventory-clinician rating scale (NPI-C): reliability and validity of a revised assessment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia. International Psychogeriatrics, 22, 984–994.
Di Iulio, F.
et al. (2010). Occurrence of neuropsychiatric symptoms and psychiatric disorders in mild Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment subtypes. International Psychogeriatrics, 22, 629–640.
Dillon, C., Serrano, C. M., Castro, D., Leguizamón, P. P., Heisecke, S. L. and Taragano, F. E. (2013). Behavioral symptoms related to cognitive impairment. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 9, 1443–1455.
et al. (2010). The APOE polymorphism in Alzheimer's disease patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms and syndromes. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 10, 1062–1070.
Folstein, M., Folstein, S. and McHugh, P. (1975). “Mini-Mental State”: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189–198.
Frisoni, G. B.
et al. (1999). Behavioral syndromes in Alzheimer's disease: description and correlates. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 10, 130–138.
Garre-Olmo, J., López-Pousa, S., Vilalta-Franch, J., De Gracia Blanco, M. and Bulbena Vilarrasa, A. (2010). Grouping and trajectories of the neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease, part I: symptom clusters. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 22, 1157–1167.
Gonfrier, S., Andrieu, S., Renaud, D., Vellas, B. and Robert, P. H. (2012). Course of neuropsychiatric symptoms during a 4-year follow up in the REAL-FR cohort. Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging, 16, 134–137.
Holthoff, V. A.
et al. (2005). Regional cerebral metabolism in early Alzheimer's disease with clinically significant apathy or depression. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 512–421.
Hughes, C. P., Berg, L., Danziger, W. L., Coben, L. A. and Martin, R. L. (1982). A new clinical scale for the staging of dementia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 566–572.
Ismail, Z., Minh-Quan, N., Fischer, C. E., Schweizer, T. A., Mulsant, B. H. and Mamo, D. (2011). Neurobiology of delusions in Alzheimer's disease. Current Psychiatry Reports, 13, 211–218.
Lyketsos, C. G., Lopez, O., Jones, B., Fitzpatrick, A. L., Breitner, J. and DeKosky, S. (2002). Prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia and mild cognitive impairment: results from the cardiovascular health study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 1475–1483.
Lyketsos, C. G. and Miller, D. S.
For the neuropsychiatric syndromes professional interest area of the international society to advance Alzheimer's research and treatment. (2012). Addressing the Alzheimer's disease crisis through better understanding, treatment, and eventual prevention of associated neuropsychiatric syndromes. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 8, 60–64.
Lyketsos, C. G.
et al. (2011). Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 7, 532–539.
McKhann, G., Drachman, D., Folstein, M., Katzman, R., Price, D. and Stadlan, E. M. (1984). Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA work group under the auspices of department of health and human services task force on Alzheimer's disease. Neurology, 34, 939–944.
Mirakhur, A., Craig, D., Hart, D. J., McLlroy, S. P. and Passmore, A. P. (2004). Behavioural and psychological syndromes in Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19, 1035–1039.
Peters, M. E.
et al. (2013). Neuropsychiatric symptoms as risk factors for progression from CIND to dementia: the cache county study. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21, 1116–1124.
Pfeffer, R. I., Kurosaki, T. T., Harrah, C. H. Jr., Chance, J. M. and Filos, S. (1982). Measurement of functional activities in older adults in the community. Journal of Gerontology, 37, 323–329.
Reisberg, B., Ferris, S. H. and De Leon, M. J. (1982). The global deterioration scale for assessment of primary degenerate dementia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 1136–1139.
Robert, P. H.
et al. (2005). Grouping for behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia: clinical and biological aspects. Consensus paper of the European Alzheimer disease consortium. European Psychiatry, 20, 490–496.
Robert, P. H.
et al. (2009). Proposed diagnostic criteria for apathy in Alzheimer's disease and other neuropsychiatric disorders. European Psychiatry, 24, 98–104.
et al. (2004). Cognition and behaviour are independent and heterogeneous dimensions in Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Neurology, 251, 688–695.
et al. (2010). Neuropsychiatric symptoms and syndromes in a large cohort of newly diagnosed, untreated patients with Alzheimer disease. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18, 1026–1035.
et al. (2013). The Brazilian version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Clinician Rating Scale (NPI-C): reliability and validity in dementia. International Psychogeriatrics, 25, 1503–1511.
et al. (2015). Caregiver report versus clinician impression: disagreements in rating neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease patients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, early view, doi: 10.1002/gps.4278.
Tractenberg, E. R., Weiner, M. F., Cummigns, J. L., Patterson, M. B. and Thal, L. J. (2005). Independence of changes in behavior from cognition and function in community-dwelling persons with Alzheimer's disease: a factor analytic approach, Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinic Neurosciences, 17, 51–60.
Van der Mussele, S.
et al. (2015). Agitation-associated behavioral symptoms in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's dementia. Aging & Mental Health, 19, 247–257.
Zhang, M., Wang, H. and Yu, T. L. (2012). Prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms across the declining memory continuum: an observational study in a memory clinic setting. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra, 2, 200–208.