Adamis, D., Treloar, A., Martin, F. C. and Macdonald, A. J. (2007). A brief review of the history of delirium as a mental disorder. History of Psychiatry, 18, 459–469.
American Psychiatric Association (2000). DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Basinski, J. R., Alfano, C. M., Katon, W. J., Syrjala, K. L. and Fann, J. R. (2010). Impact of delirium on distress, health-related quality of life, and cognition 6 months and 1 year after hematopoietic cell transplant. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, 16, 824–831.
Blank, K. and Perry, S. (1984). Relationship of psychological processes during delirium to outcome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 843–847.
Brodaty, H., Altendorf, A., Withall, A. and Sachdev, P. (2010). Do people become more apathetic as they grow older? A longitudinal study in healthy individuals. International Psychogeriatrics, 22, 426–436.
Burns, A.et al. (2007). Treatment and prevention of depression after surgery for hip fracture in older people: randomized, controlled trials. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 55, 75–80.
Cerejeira, J., Nogueria, V., Luis, P., Vaz-Serra, A. and Mukaetova-Ladinska, E. B. (2012). The cholinergic system and inflammation: common pathways in delirium pathophysiology. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60, 669–675.
Cole, M. G. (2010). Persistent delirium in older hospital patients. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 23, 250–254.
Cunningham, C. (2011). Systemic inflammation and delirium: important co-factors in the progression of delirium. Biochemical Society Transactions, 39, 945–953.
Davydow, D. S. (2009). Symptoms of depression and anxiety after delirium. Psychosomatics, 50, 309–316.
de Jonghe, J. F., Schmand, B., Ooms, M. E. and Ribbe, M. W. (1997). Abbreviated form of the Informant Questionnaire on cognitive decline in the elderly. Tijdschrift voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie, 28, 224–229.
Dolan, M. M.et al. (2000). Delirium on hospital admission in aged hip fracture patients: prediction of mortality and two-year functional outcomes. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 55A, 527–534.
Fann, J. R., Alfano, C. M., Roth-Roemer, S., Katon, W. J. and Syrjala, K. L. (2007). Impact of delirium on cognition, distress, and health-related quality of life after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 25, 1223–1231.
Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E. and McHugh, P. R. (1975). Mini-mental state: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189–198.
Girard, T. D.et al. (2007). Risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms following critical illness requiring mechanical ventilation: a prospective cohort study. Critical Care, 11, R28.
Greene, N. H., Attix, D. K., Weldon, B. C., Smith, P. J., McDonagh, D. L. and Monk, T. G. (2009). Measures of executive function and depression identify patients at risk for postoperative delirium. Anesthesiology, 110, 788–795.
Hetherington, R. (1954). The Snellen chart as a test of visual acuity. Psychologische Forschung, 24, 349–357.
Inouye, S. K., van Dyck, C. H., Alessi, C. A., Balkin, S., Siegal, A. P. and Horwitz, R. I. (1990). Clarifying confusion: the confusion assessment method. A new method for detection of delirium. Annals of Internal Medicine, 113, 941–948.
Inouye, S. K., Viscoli, C. M., Horwitz, R. I., Hurst, L. D. and Tinetti, M. E. (1993). A predictive model for delirium in hospitalized elderly medical patients based on admission characteristics. Annals of Internal Medicine, 119, 474–481.
Jones, C., Griffiths, R. D., Humphris, G. and Skirrow, P. M. (2001). Memory, delusions, and the development of acute posttraumatic stress disorder-related symptoms after intensive care. Critical Care Medicine, 29, 573–580.
Jorm, A. F. and Jacomb, P. A. (1989). The Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE): socio-demographic correlates, reliability, validity and some norms. Psychological Medicine, 19, 1015–1022.
Kalisvaart, K. J.et al. (2005). Haloperidol prophylaxis for elderly hip-surgery patients at risk for delirium: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53, 1658–1666.
Knaus, W. A., Draper, E. A., Wagner, D. P. and Zimmerman, J. E. (1985). APACHE II: a severity of disease classification system. Critical Care Medicine, 13, 818–829.
Lawton, M. P. and Brody, E. M. (1969). Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist, 9, 179–186.
Lenze, E. J.et al. (2004). Adverse effects of depression and cognitive impairment on rehabilitation participation and recovery from hip fracture. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19, 472–478.
Lenze, E. J.et al. (2007). Onset of depression in elderly persons after hip fracture: implications for prevention and early intervention of late-life depression. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 55, 81–86.
Lindeboom, J. and Matto, D. (1994). Digit series and Knox cubes as concentration tests for elderly subjects. Tijdschrift voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie, 25, 63–68.
Mahoney, F. I. and Barthel, D. W. (1965). Functional evaluation: the Barthel Index. Maryland State Medical Journal, 14, 61–65.
Marcantonio, E. R.et al. (2005). Outcomes of older people admitted to postacute facilities with delirium. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53, 963–969.
Matheny, M. E.et al. (2011). Inflammatory cytokine levels and depressive symptoms in older women in the year after hip fracture: findings from the Baltimore Hip studies. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 59, 2249–2255.
Nickel, M.et al. (2004). The occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder in patients following intensive care treatment: a cross-sectional study in a random sample. Journal of Intensive Care Medicine, 19, 285–290.
O'Connor, J. C.et al. (2009). Lipopolyssacharide-induced depressive-like behavior is mediated by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activation in mice. Molecular Psychiatry, 14, 511–522.
Olofsson, B., Lundström, M., Borssén, B., Nyberg, L. and Gustafson, Y. (2005). Delirium is associated with poor rehabilitation outcome in elderly patients treated for femoral neck fractures. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 19, 119–127.
Pattanayak, R. D. and Sagar, R. (2011). Depression in dementia patients: issues and challenges for a physician. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 59, 650–652.
Richter, J. C., Waydhas, C. and Pajonk, F. G. (2006). Incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder after prolonged surgical intensive care unit treatment. Psychosomatics, 47, 223–230.
Sheehan, D. V.et al. (1998). The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59, 22–33.
Sheikh, J. I. and Yesavage, J. A. (1986). Geriatric depression scale (GDS): recent findings and development of a shorter version. Clinical Gerontologist, 37, 819–820.
Stoll, C.et al. (1999). Sensitivity and specificity of a screening test to document traumatic experiences and to diagnose post-traumatic stress disorder in ARDS patients after intensive care treatment. Intensive Care Medicine, 25, 697–704.
Trzepacz, P. T., Mittal, D., Torres, R., Kanary, K., Norton, J. and Jimerson, N. (2001). Validation of the Delirium Rating Scale-revised-98: comparison with the delirium rating scale and the cognitive test for delirium. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 13, 229–242.
van Gool, W. A., van de Beek, D. and Eikelenboom, P. (2010). Systemic infection and delirium: when cytokines and acetylcholine collide. Lancet, 375, 773–775.
van Munster, B. C., Korevaar, J. C., Zwinderman, A. H., Levi, M., Wiersinga, W. J. and de Rooij, S. E. (2008). Time-course of cytokines during delirium in elderly patients with hip fractures. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 56, 1704–1709.
Witlox, J., Eurelings, L. S., de Jonghe, J. F., Kalisvaart, K. J., Eikelenboom, P. and van Gool, W. A. (2010). Delirium in elderly patients and the risk of postdischarge mortality, institutionalization, and dementia: a meta-analysis. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 304, 443–451.
Witlox, J.et al. (2011). Cerebrospinal fluid β-amyloid and tau are not associated with risk of delirium: a prospective cohort study in older adults with hip fracture. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 59, 1260–1267.
Zigmond, A. S. and Snaith, R. P. (1983). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67, 361–370.